Token Aave Interest bearing ETH

Aave DeFi  
 

Overview [ERC-20]

Price
$1,277.30 @ 1.003685 Eth (-0.76%)
Fully Diluted Market Cap
Max Total Supply:
3,959.529530241368408264 aETH

Holders:
5,521 (0.00%)

Transfers:
-

 
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OVERVIEW

Aave is an Open Source and Non-Custodial protocol to earn interest on deposits & borrow assets. It also features access to highly innovative flash loans, which let developers borrow instantly and easily; no collateral needed. With 16 different assets, 5 of which are stablecoins.

Market

Volume (24H):$3,245.55
Market Capitalization:$0.00
Circulating Supply:0.00 aETH
Market Data Source: Coinmarketcap

# Exchange Pair Price  24H Volume % Volume
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Contract Source Code Verified (Exact Match)

Contract Name:
AToken

Compiler Version
v0.5.14+commit.1f1aaa4

Optimization Enabled:
Yes with 200 runs

Other Settings:
istanbul EvmVersion, GNU GPLv3 license

Contract Source Code (Solidity)

/**
 *Submitted for verification at Etherscan.io on 2020-01-10
*/

pragma solidity ^0.5.0;

/**
 * @dev Wrappers over Solidity's arithmetic operations with added overflow
 * checks.
 *
 * Arithmetic operations in Solidity wrap on overflow. This can easily result
 * in bugs, because programmers usually assume that an overflow raises an
 * error, which is the standard behavior in high level programming languages.
 * `SafeMath` restores this intuition by reverting the transaction when an
 * operation overflows.
 *
 * Using this library instead of the unchecked operations eliminates an entire
 * class of bugs, so it's recommended to use it always.
 */
library SafeMath {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `+` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - Addition cannot overflow.
     */
    function add(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 c = a + b;
        require(c >= a, "SafeMath: addition overflow");

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow (when the result is negative).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - Subtraction cannot overflow.
     */
    function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(b <= a, "SafeMath: subtraction overflow");
        uint256 c = a - b;

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `*` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - Multiplication cannot overflow.
     */
    function mul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // Gas optimization: this is cheaper than requiring 'a' not being zero, but the
        // benefit is lost if 'b' is also tested.
        // See: https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-solidity/pull/522
        if (a == 0) {
            return 0;
        }

        uint256 c = a * b;
        require(c / a == b, "SafeMath: multiplication overflow");

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers. Reverts on
     * division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator. Note: this function uses a
     * `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity
     * uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function div(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // Solidity only automatically asserts when dividing by 0
        require(b > 0, "SafeMath: division by zero");
        uint256 c = a / b;
        // assert(a == b * c + a % b); // There is no case in which this doesn't hold

        return c;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
     * Reverts when dividing by zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
     * opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
     * invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function mod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(b != 0, "SafeMath: modulo by zero");
        return a % b;
    }
}


/**
* @title WadRayMath library
* @author Aave
* @dev Provides mul and div function for wads (decimal numbers with 18 digits precision) and rays (decimals with 27 digits)
**/

library WadRayMath {
    using SafeMath for uint256;

    uint256 internal constant WAD = 1e18;
    uint256 internal constant halfWAD = WAD / 2;

    uint256 internal constant RAY = 1e27;
    uint256 internal constant halfRAY = RAY / 2;

    uint256 internal constant WAD_RAY_RATIO = 1e9;

    /**
    * @return one ray, 1e27
    **/
    function ray() internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return RAY;
    }

    /**
    * @return one wad, 1e18
    **/

    function wad() internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return WAD;
    }

    /**
    * @return half ray, 1e27/2
    **/
    function halfRay() internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return halfRAY;
    }

    /**
    * @return half ray, 1e18/2
    **/
    function halfWad() internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return halfWAD;
    }

    /**
    * @dev multiplies two wad, rounding half up to the nearest wad
    * @param a wad
    * @param b wad
    * @return the result of a*b, in wad
    **/
    function wadMul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return halfWAD.add(a.mul(b)).div(WAD);
    }

    /**
    * @dev divides two wad, rounding half up to the nearest wad
    * @param a wad
    * @param b wad
    * @return the result of a/b, in wad
    **/
    function wadDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 halfB = b / 2;

        return halfB.add(a.mul(WAD)).div(b);
    }

    /**
    * @dev multiplies two ray, rounding half up to the nearest ray
    * @param a ray
    * @param b ray
    * @return the result of a*b, in ray
    **/
    function rayMul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return halfRAY.add(a.mul(b)).div(RAY);
    }

    /**
    * @dev divides two ray, rounding half up to the nearest ray
    * @param a ray
    * @param b ray
    * @return the result of a/b, in ray
    **/
    function rayDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 halfB = b / 2;

        return halfB.add(a.mul(RAY)).div(b);
    }

    /**
    * @dev casts ray down to wad
    * @param a ray
    * @return a casted to wad, rounded half up to the nearest wad
    **/
    function rayToWad(uint256 a) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 halfRatio = WAD_RAY_RATIO / 2;

        return halfRatio.add(a).div(WAD_RAY_RATIO);
    }

    /**
    * @dev convert wad up to ray
    * @param a wad
    * @return a converted in ray
    **/
    function wadToRay(uint256 a) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a.mul(WAD_RAY_RATIO);
    }

    /**
    * @dev calculates base^exp. The code uses the ModExp precompile
    * @return base^exp, in ray
    */
    //solium-disable-next-line
    function rayPow(uint256 x, uint256 n) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {

        z = n % 2 != 0 ? x : RAY;

        for (n /= 2; n != 0; n /= 2) {
            x = rayMul(x, x);

            if (n % 2 != 0) {
                z = rayMul(z, x);
            }
        }
    }

}


/**
 * @dev Contract module that helps prevent reentrant calls to a function.
 *
 * Inheriting from `ReentrancyGuard` will make the `nonReentrant` modifier
 * available, which can be aplied to functions to make sure there are no nested
 * (reentrant) calls to them.
 *
 * Note that because there is a single `nonReentrant` guard, functions marked as
 * `nonReentrant` may not call one another. This can be worked around by making
 * those functions `private`, and then adding `external` `nonReentrant` entry
 * points to them.
 */
contract ReentrancyGuard {
    /// @dev counter to allow mutex lock with only one SSTORE operation
    uint256 private _guardCounter;

    constructor () internal {
        // The counter starts at one to prevent changing it from zero to a non-zero
        // value, which is a more expensive operation.
        _guardCounter = 1;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Prevents a contract from calling itself, directly or indirectly.
     * Calling a `nonReentrant` function from another `nonReentrant`
     * function is not supported. It is possible to prevent this from happening
     * by making the `nonReentrant` function external, and make it call a
     * `private` function that does the actual work.
     */
    modifier nonReentrant() {
        _guardCounter += 1;
        uint256 localCounter = _guardCounter;
        _;
        require(localCounter == _guardCounter, "ReentrancyGuard: reentrant call");
    }
}



/**
 * @dev Collection of functions related to the address type,
 */
library Address {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if `account` is a contract.
     *
     * This test is non-exhaustive, and there may be false-negatives: during the
     * execution of a contract's constructor, its address will be reported as
     * not containing a contract.
     *
     * > It is unsafe to assume that an address for which this function returns
     * false is an externally-owned account (EOA) and not a contract.
     */
    function isContract(address account) internal view returns (bool) {
        // This method relies in extcodesize, which returns 0 for contracts in
        // construction, since the code is only stored at the end of the
        // constructor execution.

        uint256 size;
        // solhint-disable-next-line no-inline-assembly
        assembly { size := extcodesize(account) }
        return size > 0;
    }
}


/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP. Does not include
 * the optional functions; to access them see `ERC20Detailed`.
 */
interface IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens in existence.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens owned by `account`.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from the caller's account to `recipient`.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a `Transfer` event.
     */
    function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remaining number of tokens that `spender` will be
     * allowed to spend on behalf of `owner` through `transferFrom`. This is
     * zero by default.
     *
     * This value changes when `approve` or `transferFrom` are called.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the caller's tokens.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * > Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk
     * that someone may use both the old and the new allowance by unfortunate
     * transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this race
     * condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the
     * desired value afterwards:
     * https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
     *
     * Emits an `Approval` event.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from `sender` to `recipient` using the
     * allowance mechanism. `amount` is then deducted from the caller's
     * allowance.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a `Transfer` event.
     */
    function transferFrom(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `value` tokens are moved from one account (`from`) to
     * another (`to`).
     *
     * Note that `value` may be zero.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the allowance of a `spender` for an `owner` is set by
     * a call to `approve`. `value` is the new allowance.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);
}

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the `IERC20` interface.
 *
 * This implementation is agnostic to the way tokens are created. This means
 * that a supply mechanism has to be added in a derived contract using `_mint`.
 * For a generic mechanism see `ERC20Mintable`.
 *
 * *For a detailed writeup see our guide [How to implement supply
 * mechanisms](https://forum.zeppelin.solutions/t/how-to-implement-erc20-supply-mechanisms/226).*
 *
 * We have followed general OpenZeppelin guidelines: functions revert instead
 * of returning `false` on failure. This behavior is nonetheless conventional
 * and does not conflict with the expectations of ERC20 applications.
 *
 * Additionally, an `Approval` event is emitted on calls to `transferFrom`.
 * This allows applications to reconstruct the allowance for all accounts just
 * by listening to said events. Other implementations of the EIP may not emit
 * these events, as it isn't required by the specification.
 *
 * Finally, the non-standard `decreaseAllowance` and `increaseAllowance`
 * functions have been added to mitigate the well-known issues around setting
 * allowances. See `IERC20.approve`.
 */
contract ERC20 is IERC20 {
    using SafeMath for uint256;

    mapping (address => uint256) private _balances;

    mapping (address => mapping (address => uint256)) private _allowances;

    uint256 private _totalSupply;

    /**
     * @dev See `IERC20.totalSupply`.
     */
    function totalSupply() public view returns (uint256) {
        return _totalSupply;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See `IERC20.balanceOf`.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) public view returns (uint256) {
        return _balances[account];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See `IERC20.transfer`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
     * - the caller must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     */
    function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) public returns (bool) {
        _transfer(msg.sender, recipient, amount);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See `IERC20.allowance`.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) public view returns (uint256) {
        return _allowances[owner][spender];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See `IERC20.approve`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 value) public returns (bool) {
        _approve(msg.sender, spender, value);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See `IERC20.transferFrom`.
     *
     * Emits an `Approval` event indicating the updated allowance. This is not
     * required by the EIP. See the note at the beginning of `ERC20`;
     *
     * Requirements:
     * - `sender` and `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `sender` must have a balance of at least `value`.
     * - the caller must have allowance for `sender`'s tokens of at least
     * `amount`.
     */
    function transferFrom(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) public returns (bool) {
        _transfer(sender, recipient, amount);
        _approve(sender, msg.sender, _allowances[sender][msg.sender].sub(amount));
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Atomically increases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
     *
     * This is an alternative to `approve` that can be used as a mitigation for
     * problems described in `IERC20.approve`.
     *
     * Emits an `Approval` event indicating the updated allowance.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function increaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 addedValue) public returns (bool) {
        _approve(msg.sender, spender, _allowances[msg.sender][spender].add(addedValue));
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Atomically decreases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
     *
     * This is an alternative to `approve` that can be used as a mitigation for
     * problems described in `IERC20.approve`.
     *
     * Emits an `Approval` event indicating the updated allowance.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `spender` must have allowance for the caller of at least
     * `subtractedValue`.
     */
    function decreaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 subtractedValue) public returns (bool) {
        _approve(msg.sender, spender, _allowances[msg.sender][spender].sub(subtractedValue));
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Moves tokens `amount` from `sender` to `recipient`.
     *
     * This is internal function is equivalent to `transfer`, and can be used to
     * e.g. implement automatic token fees, slashing mechanisms, etc.
     *
     * Emits a `Transfer` event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `sender` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `sender` must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     */
    function _transfer(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) internal {
        require(sender != address(0), "ERC20: transfer from the zero address");
        require(recipient != address(0), "ERC20: transfer to the zero address");

        _balances[sender] = _balances[sender].sub(amount);
        _balances[recipient] = _balances[recipient].add(amount);
        emit Transfer(sender, recipient, amount);
    }

    /** @dev Creates `amount` tokens and assigns them to `account`, increasing
     * the total supply.
     *
     * Emits a `Transfer` event with `from` set to the zero address.
     *
     * Requirements
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function _mint(address account, uint256 amount) internal {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC20: mint to the zero address");

        _totalSupply = _totalSupply.add(amount);
        _balances[account] = _balances[account].add(amount);
        emit Transfer(address(0), account, amount);
    }

     /**
     * @dev Destoys `amount` tokens from `account`, reducing the
     * total supply.
     *
     * Emits a `Transfer` event with `to` set to the zero address.
     *
     * Requirements
     *
     * - `account` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `account` must have at least `amount` tokens.
     */
    function _burn(address account, uint256 value) internal {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC20: burn from the zero address");

        _totalSupply = _totalSupply.sub(value);
        _balances[account] = _balances[account].sub(value);
        emit Transfer(account, address(0), value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the `owner`s tokens.
     *
     * This is internal function is equivalent to `approve`, and can be used to
     * e.g. set automatic allowances for certain subsystems, etc.
     *
     * Emits an `Approval` event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `owner` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function _approve(address owner, address spender, uint256 value) internal {
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC20: approve from the zero address");
        require(spender != address(0), "ERC20: approve to the zero address");

        _allowances[owner][spender] = value;
        emit Approval(owner, spender, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destoys `amount` tokens from `account`.`amount` is then deducted
     * from the caller's allowance.
     *
     * See `_burn` and `_approve`.
     */
    function _burnFrom(address account, uint256 amount) internal {
        _burn(account, amount);
        _approve(account, msg.sender, _allowances[account][msg.sender].sub(amount));
    }
}

/**
 * @dev Optional functions from the ERC20 standard.
 */
contract ERC20Detailed is IERC20 {
    string private _name;
    string private _symbol;
    uint8 private _decimals;

    /**
     * @dev Sets the values for `name`, `symbol`, and `decimals`. All three of
     * these values are immutable: they can only be set once during
     * construction.
     */
    constructor (string memory name, string memory symbol, uint8 decimals) public {
        _name = name;
        _symbol = symbol;
        _decimals = decimals;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the name of the token.
     */
    function name() public view returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the symbol of the token, usually a shorter version of the
     * name.
     */
    function symbol() public view returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of decimals used to get its user representation.
     * For example, if `decimals` equals `2`, a balance of `505` tokens should
     * be displayed to a user as `5,05` (`505 / 10 ** 2`).
     *
     * Tokens usually opt for a value of 18, imitating the relationship between
     * Ether and Wei.
     *
     * > Note that this information is only used for _display_ purposes: it in
     * no way affects any of the arithmetic of the contract, including
     * `IERC20.balanceOf` and `IERC20.transfer`.
     */
    function decimals() public view returns (uint8) {
        return _decimals;
    }
}

/**
 * @title SafeERC20
 * @dev Wrappers around ERC20 operations that throw on failure (when the token
 * contract returns false). Tokens that return no value (and instead revert or
 * throw on failure) are also supported, non-reverting calls are assumed to be
 * successful.
 * To use this library you can add a `using SafeERC20 for ERC20;` statement to your contract,
 * which allows you to call the safe operations as `token.safeTransfer(...)`, etc.
 */
library SafeERC20 {
    using SafeMath for uint256;
    using Address for address;

    function safeTransfer(IERC20 token, address to, uint256 value) internal {
        callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.transfer.selector, to, value));
    }

    function safeTransferFrom(IERC20 token, address from, address to, uint256 value) internal {
        callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.transferFrom.selector, from, to, value));
    }

    function safeApprove(IERC20 token, address spender, uint256 value) internal {
        // safeApprove should only be called when setting an initial allowance,
        // or when resetting it to zero. To increase and decrease it, use
        // 'safeIncreaseAllowance' and 'safeDecreaseAllowance'
        // solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
        require((value == 0) || (token.allowance(address(this), spender) == 0),
            "SafeERC20: approve from non-zero to non-zero allowance"
        );
        callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.approve.selector, spender, value));
    }

    function safeIncreaseAllowance(IERC20 token, address spender, uint256 value) internal {
        uint256 newAllowance = token.allowance(address(this), spender).add(value);
        callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.approve.selector, spender, newAllowance));
    }

    function safeDecreaseAllowance(IERC20 token, address spender, uint256 value) internal {
        uint256 newAllowance = token.allowance(address(this), spender).sub(value);
        callOptionalReturn(token, abi.encodeWithSelector(token.approve.selector, spender, newAllowance));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Imitates a Solidity high-level call (i.e. a regular function call to a contract), relaxing the requirement
     * on the return value: the return value is optional (but if data is returned, it must not be false).
     * @param token The token targeted by the call.
     * @param data The call data (encoded using abi.encode or one of its variants).
     */
    function callOptionalReturn(IERC20 token, bytes memory data) private {
        // We need to perform a low level call here, to bypass Solidity's return data size checking mechanism, since
        // we're implementing it ourselves.

        // A Solidity high level call has three parts:
        //  1. The target address is checked to verify it contains contract code
        //  2. The call itself is made, and success asserted
        //  3. The return value is decoded, which in turn checks the size of the returned data.
        // solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
        require(address(token).isContract(), "SafeERC20: call to non-contract");

        // solhint-disable-next-line avoid-low-level-calls
        (bool success, bytes memory returndata) = address(token).call(data);
        require(success, "SafeERC20: low-level call failed");

        if (returndata.length > 0) { // Return data is optional
            // solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
            require(abi.decode(returndata, (bool)), "SafeERC20: ERC20 operation did not succeed");
        }
    }
}

/**
 * @title VersionedInitializable
 *
 * @dev Helper contract to support initializer functions. To use it, replace
 * the constructor with a function that has the `initializer` modifier.
 * WARNING: Unlike constructors, initializer functions must be manually
 * invoked. This applies both to deploying an Initializable contract, as well
 * as extending an Initializable contract via inheritance.
 * WARNING: When used with inheritance, manual care must be taken to not invoke
 * a parent initializer twice, or ensure that all initializers are idempotent,
 * because this is not dealt with automatically as with constructors.
 *
 * @author Aave, inspired by the OpenZeppelin Initializable contract
 */
contract VersionedInitializable {
    /**
   * @dev Indicates that the contract has been initialized.
   */
    uint256 private lastInitializedRevision = 0;

    /**
   * @dev Indicates that the contract is in the process of being initialized.
   */
    bool private initializing;

    /**
   * @dev Modifier to use in the initializer function of a contract.
   */
    modifier initializer() {
        uint256 revision = getRevision();
        require(initializing || isConstructor() || revision > lastInitializedRevision, "Contract instance has already been initialized");

        bool isTopLevelCall = !initializing;
        if (isTopLevelCall) {
            initializing = true;
            lastInitializedRevision = revision;
        }

        _;

        if (isTopLevelCall) {
            initializing = false;
        }
    }

    /// @dev returns the revision number of the contract.
    /// Needs to be defined in the inherited class as a constant.
    function getRevision() internal pure returns(uint256);


    /// @dev Returns true if and only if the function is running in the constructor
    function isConstructor() private view returns (bool) {
        // extcodesize checks the size of the code stored in an address, and
        // address returns the current address. Since the code is still not
        // deployed when running a constructor, any checks on its code size will
        // yield zero, making it an effective way to detect if a contract is
        // under construction or not.
        uint256 cs;
        //solium-disable-next-line
        assembly {
            cs := extcodesize(address)
        }
        return cs == 0;
    }

    // Reserved storage space to allow for layout changes in the future.
    uint256[50] private ______gap;
}


/**
 * @dev Contract module which provides a basic access control mechanism, where
 * there is an account (an owner) that can be granted exclusive access to
 * specific functions.
 *
 * This module is used through inheritance. It will make available the modifier
 * `onlyOwner`, which can be aplied to your functions to restrict their use to
 * the owner.
 */
contract Ownable {
    address private _owner;

    event OwnershipTransferred(address indexed previousOwner, address indexed newOwner);

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract setting the deployer as the initial owner.
     */
    constructor () internal {
        _owner = msg.sender;
        emit OwnershipTransferred(address(0), _owner);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address of the current owner.
     */
    function owner() public view returns (address) {
        return _owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
     */
    modifier onlyOwner() {
        require(isOwner(), "Ownable: caller is not the owner");
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if the caller is the current owner.
     */
    function isOwner() public view returns (bool) {
        return msg.sender == _owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Leaves the contract without owner. It will not be possible to call
     * `onlyOwner` functions anymore. Can only be called by the current owner.
     *
     * > Note: Renouncing ownership will leave the contract without an owner,
     * thereby removing any functionality that is only available to the owner.
     */
    function renounceOwnership() public onlyOwner {
        emit OwnershipTransferred(_owner, address(0));
        _owner = address(0);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Can only be called by the current owner.
     */
    function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public onlyOwner {
        _transferOwnership(newOwner);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     */
    function _transferOwnership(address newOwner) internal {
        require(newOwner != address(0), "Ownable: new owner is the zero address");
        emit OwnershipTransferred(_owner, newOwner);
        _owner = newOwner;
    }
}

/**
 * @title Proxy
 * @dev Implements delegation of calls to other contracts, with proper
 * forwarding of return values and bubbling of failures.
 * It defines a fallback function that delegates all calls to the address
 * returned by the abstract _implementation() internal function.
 */
contract Proxy {
    /**
   * @dev Fallback function.
   * Implemented entirely in `_fallback`.
   */
    function() external payable {
        _fallback();
    }

    /**
   * @return The Address of the implementation.
   */
    function _implementation() internal view returns (address);

    /**
   * @dev Delegates execution to an implementation contract.
   * This is a low level function that doesn't return to its internal call site.
   * It will return to the external caller whatever the implementation returns.
   * @param implementation Address to delegate.
   */
    function _delegate(address implementation) internal {
        //solium-disable-next-line
        assembly {
            // Copy msg.data. We take full control of memory in this inline assembly
            // block because it will not return to Solidity code. We overwrite the
            // Solidity scratch pad at memory position 0.
            calldatacopy(0, 0, calldatasize)

            // Call the implementation.
            // out and outsize are 0 because we don't know the size yet.
            let result := delegatecall(gas, implementation, 0, calldatasize, 0, 0)

            // Copy the returned data.
            returndatacopy(0, 0, returndatasize)

            switch result
                // delegatecall returns 0 on error.
                case 0 {
                    revert(0, returndatasize)
                }
                default {
                    return(0, returndatasize)
                }
        }
    }

    /**
   * @dev Function that is run as the first thing in the fallback function.
   * Can be redefined in derived contracts to add functionality.
   * Redefinitions must call super._willFallback().
   */
    function _willFallback() internal {}

    /**
   * @dev fallback implementation.
   * Extracted to enable manual triggering.
   */
    function _fallback() internal {
        _willFallback();
        _delegate(_implementation());
    }
}

/**
 * @title BaseUpgradeabilityProxy
 * @dev This contract implements a proxy that allows to change the
 * implementation address to which it will delegate.
 * Such a change is called an implementation upgrade.
 */
contract BaseUpgradeabilityProxy is Proxy {
    /**
   * @dev Emitted when the implementation is upgraded.
   * @param implementation Address of the new implementation.
   */
    event Upgraded(address indexed implementation);

    /**
   * @dev Storage slot with the address of the current implementation.
   * This is the keccak-256 hash of "eip1967.proxy.implementation" subtracted by 1, and is
   * validated in the constructor.
   */
    bytes32 internal constant IMPLEMENTATION_SLOT = 0x360894a13ba1a3210667c828492db98dca3e2076cc3735a920a3ca505d382bbc;

    /**
   * @dev Returns the current implementation.
   * @return Address of the current implementation
   */
    function _implementation() internal view returns (address impl) {
        bytes32 slot = IMPLEMENTATION_SLOT;
        //solium-disable-next-line
        assembly {
            impl := sload(slot)
        }
    }

    /**
   * @dev Upgrades the proxy to a new implementation.
   * @param newImplementation Address of the new implementation.
   */
    function _upgradeTo(address newImplementation) internal {
        _setImplementation(newImplementation);
        emit Upgraded(newImplementation);
    }

    /**
   * @dev Sets the implementation address of the proxy.
   * @param newImplementation Address of the new implementation.
   */
    function _setImplementation(address newImplementation) internal {
        require(
            Address.isContract(newImplementation),
            "Cannot set a proxy implementation to a non-contract address"
        );

        bytes32 slot = IMPLEMENTATION_SLOT;

        //solium-disable-next-line
        assembly {
            sstore(slot, newImplementation)
        }
    }
}



/**
 * @title BaseAdminUpgradeabilityProxy
 * @dev This contract combines an upgradeability proxy with an authorization
 * mechanism for administrative tasks.
 * All external functions in this contract must be guarded by the
 * `ifAdmin` modifier. See ethereum/solidity#3864 for a Solidity
 * feature proposal that would enable this to be done automatically.
 */
contract BaseAdminUpgradeabilityProxy is BaseUpgradeabilityProxy {
    /**
   * @dev Emitted when the administration has been transferred.
   * @param previousAdmin Address of the previous admin.
   * @param newAdmin Address of the new admin.
   */
    event AdminChanged(address previousAdmin, address newAdmin);

    /**
   * @dev Storage slot with the admin of the contract.
   * This is the keccak-256 hash of "eip1967.proxy.admin" subtracted by 1, and is
   * validated in the constructor.
   */

    bytes32 internal constant ADMIN_SLOT = 0xb53127684a568b3173ae13b9f8a6016e243e63b6e8ee1178d6a717850b5d6103;

    /**
   * @dev Modifier to check whether the `msg.sender` is the admin.
   * If it is, it will run the function. Otherwise, it will delegate the call
   * to the implementation.
   */
    modifier ifAdmin() {
        if (msg.sender == _admin()) {
            _;
        } else {
            _fallback();
        }
    }

    /**
   * @return The address of the proxy admin.
   */
    function admin() external ifAdmin returns (address) {
        return _admin();
    }

    /**
   * @return The address of the implementation.
   */
    function implementation() external ifAdmin returns (address) {
        return _implementation();
    }

    /**
   * @dev Changes the admin of the proxy.
   * Only the current admin can call this function.
   * @param newAdmin Address to transfer proxy administration to.
   */
    function changeAdmin(address newAdmin) external ifAdmin {
        require(newAdmin != address(0), "Cannot change the admin of a proxy to the zero address");
        emit AdminChanged(_admin(), newAdmin);
        _setAdmin(newAdmin);
    }

    /**
   * @dev Upgrade the backing implementation of the proxy.
   * Only the admin can call this function.
   * @param newImplementation Address of the new implementation.
   */
    function upgradeTo(address newImplementation) external ifAdmin {
        _upgradeTo(newImplementation);
    }

    /**
   * @dev Upgrade the backing implementation of the proxy and call a function
   * on the new implementation.
   * This is useful to initialize the proxied contract.
   * @param newImplementation Address of the new implementation.
   * @param data Data to send as msg.data in the low level call.
   * It should include the signature and the parameters of the function to be called, as described in
   * https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.4.24/abi-spec.html#function-selector-and-argument-encoding.
   */
    function upgradeToAndCall(address newImplementation, bytes calldata data) external payable ifAdmin {
        _upgradeTo(newImplementation);
        (bool success, ) = newImplementation.delegatecall(data);
        require(success);
    }

    /**
   * @return The admin slot.
   */
    function _admin() internal view returns (address adm) {
        bytes32 slot = ADMIN_SLOT;
        //solium-disable-next-line
        assembly {
            adm := sload(slot)
        }
    }

    /**
   * @dev Sets the address of the proxy admin.
   * @param newAdmin Address of the new proxy admin.
   */
    function _setAdmin(address newAdmin) internal {
        bytes32 slot = ADMIN_SLOT;
        //solium-disable-next-line
        assembly {
            sstore(slot, newAdmin)
        }
    }

    /**
   * @dev Only fall back when the sender is not the admin.
   */
    function _willFallback() internal {
        require(msg.sender != _admin(), "Cannot call fallback function from the proxy admin");
        super._willFallback();
    }
}

/**
 * @title UpgradeabilityProxy
 * @dev Extends BaseUpgradeabilityProxy with a constructor for initializing
 * implementation and init data.
 */
contract UpgradeabilityProxy is BaseUpgradeabilityProxy {
    /**
   * @dev Contract constructor.
   * @param _logic Address of the initial implementation.
   * @param _data Data to send as msg.data to the implementation to initialize the proxied contract.
   * It should include the signature and the parameters of the function to be called, as described in
   * https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.4.24/abi-spec.html#function-selector-and-argument-encoding.
   * This parameter is optional, if no data is given the initialization call to proxied contract will be skipped.
   */
    constructor(address _logic, bytes memory _data) public payable {
        assert(IMPLEMENTATION_SLOT == bytes32(uint256(keccak256("eip1967.proxy.implementation")) - 1));
        _setImplementation(_logic);
        if (_data.length > 0) {
            (bool success, ) = _logic.delegatecall(_data);
            require(success);
        }
    }
}




/**
 * @title AdminUpgradeabilityProxy
 * @dev Extends from BaseAdminUpgradeabilityProxy with a constructor for 
 * initializing the implementation, admin, and init data.
 */
contract AdminUpgradeabilityProxy is BaseAdminUpgradeabilityProxy, UpgradeabilityProxy {
    /**
   * Contract constructor.
   * @param _logic address of the initial implementation.
   * @param _admin Address of the proxy administrator.
   * @param _data Data to send as msg.data to the implementation to initialize the proxied contract.
   * It should include the signature and the parameters of the function to be called, as described in
   * https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.4.24/abi-spec.html#function-selector-and-argument-encoding.
   * This parameter is optional, if no data is given the initialization call to proxied contract will be skipped.
   */
    constructor(address _logic, address _admin, bytes memory _data) public payable UpgradeabilityProxy(_logic, _data) {
        assert(ADMIN_SLOT == bytes32(uint256(keccak256("eip1967.proxy.admin")) - 1));
        _setAdmin(_admin);
    }
}



/**
 * @title InitializableUpgradeabilityProxy
 * @dev Extends BaseUpgradeabilityProxy with an initializer for initializing
 * implementation and init data.
 */
contract InitializableUpgradeabilityProxy is BaseUpgradeabilityProxy {
    /**
   * @dev Contract initializer.
   * @param _logic Address of the initial implementation.
   * @param _data Data to send as msg.data to the implementation to initialize the proxied contract.
   * It should include the signature and the parameters of the function to be called, as described in
   * https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.4.24/abi-spec.html#function-selector-and-argument-encoding.
   * This parameter is optional, if no data is given the initialization call to proxied contract will be skipped.
   */
    function initialize(address _logic, bytes memory _data) public payable {
        require(_implementation() == address(0));
        assert(IMPLEMENTATION_SLOT == bytes32(uint256(keccak256("eip1967.proxy.implementation")) - 1));
        _setImplementation(_logic);
        if (_data.length > 0) {
            (bool success, ) = _logic.delegatecall(_data);
            require(success);
        }
    }
}

contract AddressStorage {
    mapping(bytes32 => address) private addresses;

    function getAddress(bytes32 _key) public view returns (address) {
        return addresses[_key];
    }

    function _setAddress(bytes32 _key, address _value) internal {
        addresses[_key] = _value;
    }

}

/**
 * @title InitializableAdminUpgradeabilityProxy
 * @dev Extends from BaseAdminUpgradeabilityProxy with an initializer for 
 * initializing the implementation, admin, and init data.
 */
contract InitializableAdminUpgradeabilityProxy is BaseAdminUpgradeabilityProxy, InitializableUpgradeabilityProxy {
    /**
   * Contract initializer.
   * @param _logic address of the initial implementation.
   * @param _admin Address of the proxy administrator.
   * @param _data Data to send as msg.data to the implementation to initialize the proxied contract.
   * It should include the signature and the parameters of the function to be called, as described in
   * https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.4.24/abi-spec.html#function-selector-and-argument-encoding.
   * This parameter is optional, if no data is given the initialization call to proxied contract will be skipped.
   */
    function initialize(address _logic, address _admin, bytes memory _data) public payable {
        require(_implementation() == address(0));
        InitializableUpgradeabilityProxy.initialize(_logic, _data);
        assert(ADMIN_SLOT == bytes32(uint256(keccak256("eip1967.proxy.admin")) - 1));
        _setAdmin(_admin);
    }
}



/**
@title ILendingPoolAddressesProvider interface
@notice provides the interface to fetch the LendingPoolCore address
 */

contract ILendingPoolAddressesProvider {

    function getLendingPool() public view returns (address);
    function setLendingPoolImpl(address _pool) public;

    function getLendingPoolCore() public view returns (address payable);
    function setLendingPoolCoreImpl(address _lendingPoolCore) public;

    function getLendingPoolConfigurator() public view returns (address);
    function setLendingPoolConfiguratorImpl(address _configurator) public;

    function getLendingPoolDataProvider() public view returns (address);
    function setLendingPoolDataProviderImpl(address _provider) public;

    function getLendingPoolParametersProvider() public view returns (address);
    function setLendingPoolParametersProviderImpl(address _parametersProvider) public;

    function getTokenDistributor() public view returns (address);
    function setTokenDistributor(address _tokenDistributor) public;


    function getFeeProvider() public view returns (address);
    function setFeeProviderImpl(address _feeProvider) public;

    function getLendingPoolLiquidationManager() public view returns (address);
    function setLendingPoolLiquidationManager(address _manager) public;

    function getLendingPoolManager() public view returns (address);
    function setLendingPoolManager(address _lendingPoolManager) public;

    function getPriceOracle() public view returns (address);
    function setPriceOracle(address _priceOracle) public;

    function getLendingRateOracle() public view returns (address);
    function setLendingRateOracle(address _lendingRateOracle) public;

}




/**
* @title LendingPoolAddressesProvider contract
* @notice Is the main registry of the protocol. All the different components of the protocol are accessible
* through the addresses provider.
* @author Aave
**/

contract LendingPoolAddressesProvider is Ownable, ILendingPoolAddressesProvider, AddressStorage {
    //events
    event LendingPoolUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event LendingPoolCoreUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event LendingPoolParametersProviderUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event LendingPoolManagerUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event LendingPoolConfiguratorUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event LendingPoolLiquidationManagerUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event LendingPoolDataProviderUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event EthereumAddressUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event PriceOracleUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event LendingRateOracleUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event FeeProviderUpdated(address indexed newAddress);
    event TokenDistributorUpdated(address indexed newAddress);

    event ProxyCreated(bytes32 id, address indexed newAddress);

    bytes32 private constant LENDING_POOL = "LENDING_POOL";
    bytes32 private constant LENDING_POOL_CORE = "LENDING_POOL_CORE";
    bytes32 private constant LENDING_POOL_CONFIGURATOR = "LENDING_POOL_CONFIGURATOR";
    bytes32 private constant LENDING_POOL_PARAMETERS_PROVIDER = "PARAMETERS_PROVIDER";
    bytes32 private constant LENDING_POOL_MANAGER = "LENDING_POOL_MANAGER";
    bytes32 private constant LENDING_POOL_LIQUIDATION_MANAGER = "LIQUIDATION_MANAGER";
    bytes32 private constant LENDING_POOL_FLASHLOAN_PROVIDER = "FLASHLOAN_PROVIDER";
    bytes32 private constant DATA_PROVIDER = "DATA_PROVIDER";
    bytes32 private constant ETHEREUM_ADDRESS = "ETHEREUM_ADDRESS";
    bytes32 private constant PRICE_ORACLE = "PRICE_ORACLE";
    bytes32 private constant LENDING_RATE_ORACLE = "LENDING_RATE_ORACLE";
    bytes32 private constant FEE_PROVIDER = "FEE_PROVIDER";
    bytes32 private constant WALLET_BALANCE_PROVIDER = "WALLET_BALANCE_PROVIDER";
    bytes32 private constant TOKEN_DISTRIBUTOR = "TOKEN_DISTRIBUTOR";


    /**
    * @dev returns the address of the LendingPool proxy
    * @return the lending pool proxy address
    **/
    function getLendingPool() public view returns (address) {
        return getAddress(LENDING_POOL);
    }


    /**
    * @dev updates the implementation of the lending pool
    * @param _pool the new lending pool implementation
    **/
    function setLendingPoolImpl(address _pool) public onlyOwner {
        updateImplInternal(LENDING_POOL, _pool);
        emit LendingPoolUpdated(_pool);
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the address of the LendingPoolCore proxy
    * @return the lending pool core proxy address
     */
    function getLendingPoolCore() public view returns (address payable) {
        address payable core = address(uint160(getAddress(LENDING_POOL_CORE)));
        return core;
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the implementation of the lending pool core
    * @param _lendingPoolCore the new lending pool core implementation
    **/
    function setLendingPoolCoreImpl(address _lendingPoolCore) public onlyOwner {
        updateImplInternal(LENDING_POOL_CORE, _lendingPoolCore);
        emit LendingPoolCoreUpdated(_lendingPoolCore);
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the address of the LendingPoolConfigurator proxy
    * @return the lending pool configurator proxy address
    **/
    function getLendingPoolConfigurator() public view returns (address) {
        return getAddress(LENDING_POOL_CONFIGURATOR);
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the implementation of the lending pool configurator
    * @param _configurator the new lending pool configurator implementation
    **/
    function setLendingPoolConfiguratorImpl(address _configurator) public onlyOwner {
        updateImplInternal(LENDING_POOL_CONFIGURATOR, _configurator);
        emit LendingPoolConfiguratorUpdated(_configurator);
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the address of the LendingPoolDataProvider proxy
    * @return the lending pool data provider proxy address
     */
    function getLendingPoolDataProvider() public view returns (address) {
        return getAddress(DATA_PROVIDER);
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the implementation of the lending pool data provider
    * @param _provider the new lending pool data provider implementation
    **/
    function setLendingPoolDataProviderImpl(address _provider) public onlyOwner {
        updateImplInternal(DATA_PROVIDER, _provider);
        emit LendingPoolDataProviderUpdated(_provider);
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the address of the LendingPoolParametersProvider proxy
    * @return the address of the Lending pool parameters provider proxy
    **/
    function getLendingPoolParametersProvider() public view returns (address) {
        return getAddress(LENDING_POOL_PARAMETERS_PROVIDER);
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the implementation of the lending pool parameters provider
    * @param _parametersProvider the new lending pool parameters provider implementation
    **/
    function setLendingPoolParametersProviderImpl(address _parametersProvider) public onlyOwner {
        updateImplInternal(LENDING_POOL_PARAMETERS_PROVIDER, _parametersProvider);
        emit LendingPoolParametersProviderUpdated(_parametersProvider);
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the address of the FeeProvider proxy
    * @return the address of the Fee provider proxy
    **/
    function getFeeProvider() public view returns (address) {
        return getAddress(FEE_PROVIDER);
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the implementation of the FeeProvider proxy
    * @param _feeProvider the new lending pool fee provider implementation
    **/
    function setFeeProviderImpl(address _feeProvider) public onlyOwner {
        updateImplInternal(FEE_PROVIDER, _feeProvider);
        emit FeeProviderUpdated(_feeProvider);
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the address of the LendingPoolLiquidationManager. Since the manager is used
    * through delegateCall within the LendingPool contract, the proxy contract pattern does not work properly hence
    * the addresses are changed directly.
    * @return the address of the Lending pool liquidation manager
    **/

    function getLendingPoolLiquidationManager() public view returns (address) {
        return getAddress(LENDING_POOL_LIQUIDATION_MANAGER);
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the address of the Lending pool liquidation manager
    * @param _manager the new lending pool liquidation manager address
    **/
    function setLendingPoolLiquidationManager(address _manager) public onlyOwner {
        _setAddress(LENDING_POOL_LIQUIDATION_MANAGER, _manager);
        emit LendingPoolLiquidationManagerUpdated(_manager);
    }

    /**
    * @dev the functions below are storing specific addresses that are outside the context of the protocol
    * hence the upgradable proxy pattern is not used
    **/


    function getLendingPoolManager() public view returns (address) {
        return getAddress(LENDING_POOL_MANAGER);
    }

    function setLendingPoolManager(address _lendingPoolManager) public onlyOwner {
        _setAddress(LENDING_POOL_MANAGER, _lendingPoolManager);
        emit LendingPoolManagerUpdated(_lendingPoolManager);
    }

    function getPriceOracle() public view returns (address) {
        return getAddress(PRICE_ORACLE);
    }

    function setPriceOracle(address _priceOracle) public onlyOwner {
        _setAddress(PRICE_ORACLE, _priceOracle);
        emit PriceOracleUpdated(_priceOracle);
    }

    function getLendingRateOracle() public view returns (address) {
        return getAddress(LENDING_RATE_ORACLE);
    }

    function setLendingRateOracle(address _lendingRateOracle) public onlyOwner {
        _setAddress(LENDING_RATE_ORACLE, _lendingRateOracle);
        emit LendingRateOracleUpdated(_lendingRateOracle);
    }


    function getTokenDistributor() public view returns (address) {
        return getAddress(TOKEN_DISTRIBUTOR);
    }

    function setTokenDistributor(address _tokenDistributor) public onlyOwner {
        _setAddress(TOKEN_DISTRIBUTOR, _tokenDistributor);
        emit TokenDistributorUpdated(_tokenDistributor);
    }


    /**
    * @dev internal function to update the implementation of a specific component of the protocol
    * @param _id the id of the contract to be updated
    * @param _newAddress the address of the new implementation
    **/
    function updateImplInternal(bytes32 _id, address _newAddress) internal {
        address payable proxyAddress = address(uint160(getAddress(_id)));

        InitializableAdminUpgradeabilityProxy proxy = InitializableAdminUpgradeabilityProxy(proxyAddress);
        bytes memory params = abi.encodeWithSignature("initialize(address)", address(this));

        if (proxyAddress == address(0)) {
            proxy = new InitializableAdminUpgradeabilityProxy();
            proxy.initialize(_newAddress, address(this), params);
            _setAddress(_id, address(proxy));
            emit ProxyCreated(_id, address(proxy));
        } else {
            proxy.upgradeToAndCall(_newAddress, params);
        }

    }
}

contract UintStorage {
    mapping(bytes32 => uint256) private uints;

    function getUint(bytes32 _key) public view returns (uint256) {
        return uints[_key];
    }

    function _setUint(bytes32 _key, uint256 _value) internal {
        uints[_key] = _value;
    }

}


/**
* @title LendingPoolParametersProvider
* @author Aave
* @notice stores the configuration parameters of the Lending Pool contract
**/

contract LendingPoolParametersProvider is VersionedInitializable {

    uint256 private constant MAX_STABLE_RATE_BORROW_SIZE_PERCENT = 25;
    uint256 private constant REBALANCE_DOWN_RATE_DELTA = (1e27)/5;
    uint256 private constant FLASHLOAN_FEE_TOTAL = 35;
    uint256 private constant FLASHLOAN_FEE_PROTOCOL = 3000;

    uint256 constant private DATA_PROVIDER_REVISION = 0x1;

    function getRevision() internal pure returns(uint256) {
        return DATA_PROVIDER_REVISION;
    }

    /**
    * @dev initializes the LendingPoolParametersProvider after it's added to the proxy
    * @param _addressesProvider the address of the LendingPoolAddressesProvider
    */
    function initialize(address _addressesProvider) public initializer {
    }
    /**
    * @dev returns the maximum stable rate borrow size, in percentage of the available liquidity.
    **/
    function getMaxStableRateBorrowSizePercent() external pure returns (uint256)  {
        return MAX_STABLE_RATE_BORROW_SIZE_PERCENT;
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the delta between the current stable rate and the user stable rate at
    *      which the borrow position of the user will be rebalanced (scaled down)
    **/
    function getRebalanceDownRateDelta() external pure returns (uint256) {
        return REBALANCE_DOWN_RATE_DELTA;
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the fee applied to a flashloan and the portion to redirect to the protocol, in basis points.
    **/
    function getFlashLoanFeesInBips() external pure returns (uint256, uint256) {
        return (FLASHLOAN_FEE_TOTAL, FLASHLOAN_FEE_PROTOCOL);
    }
}

/**
* @title CoreLibrary library
* @author Aave
* @notice Defines the data structures of the reserves and the user data
**/
library CoreLibrary {
    using SafeMath for uint256;
    using WadRayMath for uint256;

    enum InterestRateMode {NONE, STABLE, VARIABLE}

    uint256 internal constant SECONDS_PER_YEAR = 365 days;

    struct UserReserveData {
        //principal amount borrowed by the user.
        uint256 principalBorrowBalance;
        //cumulated variable borrow index for the user. Expressed in ray
        uint256 lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex;
        //origination fee cumulated by the user
        uint256 originationFee;
        // stable borrow rate at which the user has borrowed. Expressed in ray
        uint256 stableBorrowRate;
        uint40 lastUpdateTimestamp;
        //defines if a specific deposit should or not be used as a collateral in borrows
        bool useAsCollateral;
    }

    struct ReserveData {
        /**
        * @dev refer to the whitepaper, section 1.1 basic concepts for a formal description of these properties.
        **/
        //the liquidity index. Expressed in ray
        uint256 lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex;
        //the current supply rate. Expressed in ray
        uint256 currentLiquidityRate;
        //the total borrows of the reserve at a stable rate. Expressed in the currency decimals
        uint256 totalBorrowsStable;
        //the total borrows of the reserve at a variable rate. Expressed in the currency decimals
        uint256 totalBorrowsVariable;
        //the current variable borrow rate. Expressed in ray
        uint256 currentVariableBorrowRate;
        //the current stable borrow rate. Expressed in ray
        uint256 currentStableBorrowRate;
        //the current average stable borrow rate (weighted average of all the different stable rate loans). Expressed in ray
        uint256 currentAverageStableBorrowRate;
        //variable borrow index. Expressed in ray
        uint256 lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex;
        //the ltv of the reserve. Expressed in percentage (0-100)
        uint256 baseLTVasCollateral;
        //the liquidation threshold of the reserve. Expressed in percentage (0-100)
        uint256 liquidationThreshold;
        //the liquidation bonus of the reserve. Expressed in percentage
        uint256 liquidationBonus;
        //the decimals of the reserve asset
        uint256 decimals;
        /**
        * @dev address of the aToken representing the asset
        **/
        address aTokenAddress;
        /**
        * @dev address of the interest rate strategy contract
        **/
        address interestRateStrategyAddress;
        uint40 lastUpdateTimestamp;
        // borrowingEnabled = true means users can borrow from this reserve
        bool borrowingEnabled;
        // usageAsCollateralEnabled = true means users can use this reserve as collateral
        bool usageAsCollateralEnabled;
        // isStableBorrowRateEnabled = true means users can borrow at a stable rate
        bool isStableBorrowRateEnabled;
        // isActive = true means the reserve has been activated and properly configured
        bool isActive;
        // isFreezed = true means the reserve only allows repays and redeems, but not deposits, new borrowings or rate swap
        bool isFreezed;
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the ongoing normalized income for the reserve.
    * a value of 1e27 means there is no income. As time passes, the income is accrued.
    * A value of 2*1e27 means that the income of the reserve is double the initial amount.
    * @param _reserve the reserve object
    * @return the normalized income. expressed in ray
    **/
    function getNormalizedIncome(CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage _reserve)
        internal
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        uint256 cumulated = calculateLinearInterest(
            _reserve
                .currentLiquidityRate,
            _reserve
                .lastUpdateTimestamp
        )
            .rayMul(_reserve.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex);

        return cumulated;

    }

    /**
    * @dev Updates the liquidity cumulative index Ci and variable borrow cumulative index Bvc. Refer to the whitepaper for
    * a formal specification.
    * @param _self the reserve object
    **/
    function updateCumulativeIndexes(ReserveData storage _self) internal {
        uint256 totalBorrows = getTotalBorrows(_self);

        if (totalBorrows > 0) {
            //only cumulating if there is any income being produced
            uint256 cumulatedLiquidityInterest = calculateLinearInterest(
                _self.currentLiquidityRate,
                _self.lastUpdateTimestamp
            );

            _self.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex = cumulatedLiquidityInterest.rayMul(
                _self.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex
            );

            uint256 cumulatedVariableBorrowInterest = calculateCompoundedInterest(
                _self.currentVariableBorrowRate,
                _self.lastUpdateTimestamp
            );
            _self.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex = cumulatedVariableBorrowInterest.rayMul(
                _self.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex
            );
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev accumulates a predefined amount of asset to the reserve as a fixed, one time income. Used for example to accumulate
    * the flashloan fee to the reserve, and spread it through the depositors.
    * @param _self the reserve object
    * @param _totalLiquidity the total liquidity available in the reserve
    * @param _amount the amount to accomulate
    **/
    function cumulateToLiquidityIndex(
        ReserveData storage _self,
        uint256 _totalLiquidity,
        uint256 _amount
    ) internal {
        uint256 amountToLiquidityRatio = _amount.wadToRay().rayDiv(_totalLiquidity.wadToRay());

        uint256 cumulatedLiquidity = amountToLiquidityRatio.add(WadRayMath.ray());

        _self.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex = cumulatedLiquidity.rayMul(
            _self.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev initializes a reserve
    * @param _self the reserve object
    * @param _aTokenAddress the address of the overlying atoken contract
    * @param _decimals the number of decimals of the underlying asset
    * @param _interestRateStrategyAddress the address of the interest rate strategy contract
    **/
    function init(
        ReserveData storage _self,
        address _aTokenAddress,
        uint256 _decimals,
        address _interestRateStrategyAddress
    ) external {
        require(_self.aTokenAddress == address(0), "Reserve has already been initialized");

        if (_self.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex == 0) {
            //if the reserve has not been initialized yet
            _self.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex = WadRayMath.ray();
        }

        if (_self.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex == 0) {
            _self.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex = WadRayMath.ray();
        }

        _self.aTokenAddress = _aTokenAddress;
        _self.decimals = _decimals;

        _self.interestRateStrategyAddress = _interestRateStrategyAddress;
        _self.isActive = true;
        _self.isFreezed = false;

    }

    /**
    * @dev enables borrowing on a reserve
    * @param _self the reserve object
    * @param _stableBorrowRateEnabled true if the stable borrow rate must be enabled by default, false otherwise
    **/
    function enableBorrowing(ReserveData storage _self, bool _stableBorrowRateEnabled) external {
        require(_self.borrowingEnabled == false, "Reserve is already enabled");

        _self.borrowingEnabled = true;
        _self.isStableBorrowRateEnabled = _stableBorrowRateEnabled;

    }

    /**
    * @dev disables borrowing on a reserve
    * @param _self the reserve object
    **/
    function disableBorrowing(ReserveData storage _self) external {
        _self.borrowingEnabled = false;
    }

    /**
    * @dev enables a reserve to be used as collateral
    * @param _self the reserve object
    * @param _baseLTVasCollateral the loan to value of the asset when used as collateral
    * @param _liquidationThreshold the threshold at which loans using this asset as collateral will be considered undercollateralized
    * @param _liquidationBonus the bonus liquidators receive to liquidate this asset
    **/
    function enableAsCollateral(
        ReserveData storage _self,
        uint256 _baseLTVasCollateral,
        uint256 _liquidationThreshold,
        uint256 _liquidationBonus
    ) external {
        require(
            _self.usageAsCollateralEnabled == false,
            "Reserve is already enabled as collateral"
        );

        _self.usageAsCollateralEnabled = true;
        _self.baseLTVasCollateral = _baseLTVasCollateral;
        _self.liquidationThreshold = _liquidationThreshold;
        _self.liquidationBonus = _liquidationBonus;

        if (_self.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex == 0)
            _self.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex = WadRayMath.ray();

    }

    /**
    * @dev disables a reserve as collateral
    * @param _self the reserve object
    **/
    function disableAsCollateral(ReserveData storage _self) external {
        _self.usageAsCollateralEnabled = false;
    }



    /**
    * @dev calculates the compounded borrow balance of a user
    * @param _self the userReserve object
    * @param _reserve the reserve object
    * @return the user compounded borrow balance
    **/
    function getCompoundedBorrowBalance(
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage _self,
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage _reserve
    ) internal view returns (uint256) {
        if (_self.principalBorrowBalance == 0) return 0;

        uint256 principalBorrowBalanceRay = _self.principalBorrowBalance.wadToRay();
        uint256 compoundedBalance = 0;
        uint256 cumulatedInterest = 0;

        if (_self.stableBorrowRate > 0) {
            cumulatedInterest = calculateCompoundedInterest(
                _self.stableBorrowRate,
                _self.lastUpdateTimestamp
            );
        } else {
            //variable interest
            cumulatedInterest = calculateCompoundedInterest(
                _reserve
                    .currentVariableBorrowRate,
                _reserve
                    .lastUpdateTimestamp
            )
                .rayMul(_reserve.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex)
                .rayDiv(_self.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex);
        }

        compoundedBalance = principalBorrowBalanceRay.rayMul(cumulatedInterest).rayToWad();

        if (compoundedBalance == _self.principalBorrowBalance) {
            //solium-disable-next-line
            if (_self.lastUpdateTimestamp != block.timestamp) {
                //no interest cumulation because of the rounding - we add 1 wei
                //as symbolic cumulated interest to avoid interest free loans.

                return _self.principalBorrowBalance.add(1 wei);
            }
        }

        return compoundedBalance;
    }

    /**
    * @dev increases the total borrows at a stable rate on a specific reserve and updates the
    * average stable rate consequently
    * @param _reserve the reserve object
    * @param _amount the amount to add to the total borrows stable
    * @param _rate the rate at which the amount has been borrowed
    **/
    function increaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
        ReserveData storage _reserve,
        uint256 _amount,
        uint256 _rate
    ) internal {
        uint256 previousTotalBorrowStable = _reserve.totalBorrowsStable;
        //updating reserve borrows stable
        _reserve.totalBorrowsStable = _reserve.totalBorrowsStable.add(_amount);

        //update the average stable rate
        //weighted average of all the borrows
        uint256 weightedLastBorrow = _amount.wadToRay().rayMul(_rate);
        uint256 weightedPreviousTotalBorrows = previousTotalBorrowStable.wadToRay().rayMul(
            _reserve.currentAverageStableBorrowRate
        );

        _reserve.currentAverageStableBorrowRate = weightedLastBorrow
            .add(weightedPreviousTotalBorrows)
            .rayDiv(_reserve.totalBorrowsStable.wadToRay());
    }

    /**
    * @dev decreases the total borrows at a stable rate on a specific reserve and updates the
    * average stable rate consequently
    * @param _reserve the reserve object
    * @param _amount the amount to substract to the total borrows stable
    * @param _rate the rate at which the amount has been repaid
    **/
    function decreaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
        ReserveData storage _reserve,
        uint256 _amount,
        uint256 _rate
    ) internal {
        require(_reserve.totalBorrowsStable >= _amount, "Invalid amount to decrease");

        uint256 previousTotalBorrowStable = _reserve.totalBorrowsStable;

        //updating reserve borrows stable
        _reserve.totalBorrowsStable = _reserve.totalBorrowsStable.sub(_amount);

        if (_reserve.totalBorrowsStable == 0) {
            _reserve.currentAverageStableBorrowRate = 0; //no income if there are no stable rate borrows
            return;
        }

        //update the average stable rate
        //weighted average of all the borrows
        uint256 weightedLastBorrow = _amount.wadToRay().rayMul(_rate);
        uint256 weightedPreviousTotalBorrows = previousTotalBorrowStable.wadToRay().rayMul(
            _reserve.currentAverageStableBorrowRate
        );

        require(
            weightedPreviousTotalBorrows >= weightedLastBorrow,
            "The amounts to subtract don't match"
        );

        _reserve.currentAverageStableBorrowRate = weightedPreviousTotalBorrows
            .sub(weightedLastBorrow)
            .rayDiv(_reserve.totalBorrowsStable.wadToRay());
    }

    /**
    * @dev increases the total borrows at a variable rate
    * @param _reserve the reserve object
    * @param _amount the amount to add to the total borrows variable
    **/
    function increaseTotalBorrowsVariable(ReserveData storage _reserve, uint256 _amount) internal {
        _reserve.totalBorrowsVariable = _reserve.totalBorrowsVariable.add(_amount);
    }

    /**
    * @dev decreases the total borrows at a variable rate
    * @param _reserve the reserve object
    * @param _amount the amount to substract to the total borrows variable
    **/
    function decreaseTotalBorrowsVariable(ReserveData storage _reserve, uint256 _amount) internal {
        require(
            _reserve.totalBorrowsVariable >= _amount,
            "The amount that is being subtracted from the variable total borrows is incorrect"
        );
        _reserve.totalBorrowsVariable = _reserve.totalBorrowsVariable.sub(_amount);
    }

    /**
    * @dev function to calculate the interest using a linear interest rate formula
    * @param _rate the interest rate, in ray
    * @param _lastUpdateTimestamp the timestamp of the last update of the interest
    * @return the interest rate linearly accumulated during the timeDelta, in ray
    **/

    function calculateLinearInterest(uint256 _rate, uint40 _lastUpdateTimestamp)
        internal
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        //solium-disable-next-line
        uint256 timeDifference = block.timestamp.sub(uint256(_lastUpdateTimestamp));

        uint256 timeDelta = timeDifference.wadToRay().rayDiv(SECONDS_PER_YEAR.wadToRay());

        return _rate.rayMul(timeDelta).add(WadRayMath.ray());
    }

    /**
    * @dev function to calculate the interest using a compounded interest rate formula
    * @param _rate the interest rate, in ray
    * @param _lastUpdateTimestamp the timestamp of the last update of the interest
    * @return the interest rate compounded during the timeDelta, in ray
    **/
    function calculateCompoundedInterest(uint256 _rate, uint40 _lastUpdateTimestamp)
        internal
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        //solium-disable-next-line
        uint256 timeDifference = block.timestamp.sub(uint256(_lastUpdateTimestamp));

        uint256 ratePerSecond = _rate.div(SECONDS_PER_YEAR);

        return ratePerSecond.add(WadRayMath.ray()).rayPow(timeDifference);
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the total borrows on the reserve
    * @param _reserve the reserve object
    * @return the total borrows (stable + variable)
    **/
    function getTotalBorrows(CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage _reserve)
        internal
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        return _reserve.totalBorrowsStable.add(_reserve.totalBorrowsVariable);
    }

}



/**
* @title IPriceOracleGetter interface
* @notice Interface for the Aave price oracle.
**/

interface IPriceOracleGetter {
    /**
    * @dev returns the asset price in ETH
    * @param _asset the address of the asset
    * @return the ETH price of the asset
    **/
    function getAssetPrice(address _asset) external view returns (uint256);
}

/**
* @title IFeeProvider interface
* @notice Interface for the Aave fee provider.
**/

interface IFeeProvider {
    function calculateLoanOriginationFee(address _user, uint256 _amount) external view returns (uint256);
    function getLoanOriginationFeePercentage() external view returns (uint256);
}

/**
* @title LendingPoolDataProvider contract
* @author Aave
* @notice Implements functions to fetch data from the core, and aggregate them in order to allow computation
* on the compounded balances and the account balances in ETH
**/
contract LendingPoolDataProvider is VersionedInitializable {
    using SafeMath for uint256;
    using WadRayMath for uint256;

    LendingPoolCore public core;
    LendingPoolAddressesProvider public addressesProvider;

    /**
    * @dev specifies the health factor threshold at which the user position is liquidated.
    * 1e18 by default, if the health factor drops below 1e18, the loan can be liquidated.
    **/
    uint256 public constant HEALTH_FACTOR_LIQUIDATION_THRESHOLD = 1e18;

    uint256 public constant DATA_PROVIDER_REVISION = 0x1;

    function getRevision() internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return DATA_PROVIDER_REVISION;
    }

    function initialize(LendingPoolAddressesProvider _addressesProvider) public initializer {
        addressesProvider = _addressesProvider;
        core = LendingPoolCore(_addressesProvider.getLendingPoolCore());
    }

    /**
    * @dev struct to hold calculateUserGlobalData() local computations
    **/
    struct UserGlobalDataLocalVars {
        uint256 reserveUnitPrice;
        uint256 tokenUnit;
        uint256 compoundedLiquidityBalance;
        uint256 compoundedBorrowBalance;
        uint256 reserveDecimals;
        uint256 baseLtv;
        uint256 liquidationThreshold;
        uint256 originationFee;
        bool usageAsCollateralEnabled;
        bool userUsesReserveAsCollateral;
        address currentReserve;
    }

    /**
    * @dev calculates the user data across the reserves.
    * this includes the total liquidity/collateral/borrow balances in ETH,
    * the average Loan To Value, the average Liquidation Ratio, and the Health factor.
    * @param _user the address of the user
    * @return the total liquidity, total collateral, total borrow balances of the user in ETH.
    * also the average Ltv, liquidation threshold, and the health factor
    **/
    function calculateUserGlobalData(address _user)
        public
        view
        returns (
            uint256 totalLiquidityBalanceETH,
            uint256 totalCollateralBalanceETH,
            uint256 totalBorrowBalanceETH,
            uint256 totalFeesETH,
            uint256 currentLtv,
            uint256 currentLiquidationThreshold,
            uint256 healthFactor,
            bool healthFactorBelowThreshold
        )
    {
        IPriceOracleGetter oracle = IPriceOracleGetter(addressesProvider.getPriceOracle());

        // Usage of a memory struct of vars to avoid "Stack too deep" errors due to local variables
        UserGlobalDataLocalVars memory vars;

        address[] memory reserves = core.getReserves();

        for (uint256 i = 0; i < reserves.length; i++) {
            vars.currentReserve = reserves[i];

            (
                vars.compoundedLiquidityBalance,
                vars.compoundedBorrowBalance,
                vars.originationFee,
                vars.userUsesReserveAsCollateral
            ) = core.getUserBasicReserveData(vars.currentReserve, _user);

            if (vars.compoundedLiquidityBalance == 0 && vars.compoundedBorrowBalance == 0) {
                continue;
            }

            //fetch reserve data
            (
                vars.reserveDecimals,
                vars.baseLtv,
                vars.liquidationThreshold,
                vars.usageAsCollateralEnabled
            ) = core.getReserveConfiguration(vars.currentReserve);

            vars.tokenUnit = 10 ** vars.reserveDecimals;
            vars.reserveUnitPrice = oracle.getAssetPrice(vars.currentReserve);

            //liquidity and collateral balance
            if (vars.compoundedLiquidityBalance > 0) {
                uint256 liquidityBalanceETH = vars
                    .reserveUnitPrice
                    .mul(vars.compoundedLiquidityBalance)
                    .div(vars.tokenUnit);
                totalLiquidityBalanceETH = totalLiquidityBalanceETH.add(liquidityBalanceETH);

                if (vars.usageAsCollateralEnabled && vars.userUsesReserveAsCollateral) {
                    totalCollateralBalanceETH = totalCollateralBalanceETH.add(liquidityBalanceETH);
                    currentLtv = currentLtv.add(liquidityBalanceETH.mul(vars.baseLtv));
                    currentLiquidationThreshold = currentLiquidationThreshold.add(
                        liquidityBalanceETH.mul(vars.liquidationThreshold)
                    );
                }
            }

            if (vars.compoundedBorrowBalance > 0) {
                totalBorrowBalanceETH = totalBorrowBalanceETH.add(
                    vars.reserveUnitPrice.mul(vars.compoundedBorrowBalance).div(vars.tokenUnit)
                );
                totalFeesETH = totalFeesETH.add(
                    vars.originationFee.mul(vars.reserveUnitPrice).div(vars.tokenUnit)
                );
            }
        }

        currentLtv = totalCollateralBalanceETH > 0 ? currentLtv.div(totalCollateralBalanceETH) : 0;
        currentLiquidationThreshold = totalCollateralBalanceETH > 0
            ? currentLiquidationThreshold.div(totalCollateralBalanceETH)
            : 0;

        healthFactor = calculateHealthFactorFromBalancesInternal(
            totalCollateralBalanceETH,
            totalBorrowBalanceETH,
            totalFeesETH,
            currentLiquidationThreshold
        );
        healthFactorBelowThreshold = healthFactor < HEALTH_FACTOR_LIQUIDATION_THRESHOLD;

    }

    struct balanceDecreaseAllowedLocalVars {
        uint256 decimals;
        uint256 collateralBalanceETH;
        uint256 borrowBalanceETH;
        uint256 totalFeesETH;
        uint256 currentLiquidationThreshold;
        uint256 reserveLiquidationThreshold;
        uint256 amountToDecreaseETH;
        uint256 collateralBalancefterDecrease;
        uint256 liquidationThresholdAfterDecrease;
        uint256 healthFactorAfterDecrease;
        bool reserveUsageAsCollateralEnabled;
    }

    /**
    * @dev check if a specific balance decrease is allowed (i.e. doesn't bring the user borrow position health factor under 1e18)
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user
    * @param _amount the amount to decrease
    * @return true if the decrease of the balance is allowed
    **/

    function balanceDecreaseAllowed(address _reserve, address _user, uint256 _amount)
        external
        view
        returns (bool)
    {
        // Usage of a memory struct of vars to avoid "Stack too deep" errors due to local variables
        balanceDecreaseAllowedLocalVars memory vars;

        (
            vars.decimals,
            ,
            vars.reserveLiquidationThreshold,
            vars.reserveUsageAsCollateralEnabled
        ) = core.getReserveConfiguration(_reserve);

        if (
            !vars.reserveUsageAsCollateralEnabled ||
            !core.isUserUseReserveAsCollateralEnabled(_reserve, _user)
        ) {
            return true; //if reserve is not used as collateral, no reasons to block the transfer
        }

        (
            ,
            vars.collateralBalanceETH,
            vars.borrowBalanceETH,
            vars.totalFeesETH,
            ,
            vars.currentLiquidationThreshold,
            ,

        ) = calculateUserGlobalData(_user);

        if (vars.borrowBalanceETH == 0) {
            return true; //no borrows - no reasons to block the transfer
        }

        IPriceOracleGetter oracle = IPriceOracleGetter(addressesProvider.getPriceOracle());

        vars.amountToDecreaseETH = oracle.getAssetPrice(_reserve).mul(_amount).div(
            10 ** vars.decimals
        );

        vars.collateralBalancefterDecrease = vars.collateralBalanceETH.sub(
            vars.amountToDecreaseETH
        );

        //if there is a borrow, there can't be 0 collateral
        if (vars.collateralBalancefterDecrease == 0) {
            return false;
        }

        vars.liquidationThresholdAfterDecrease = vars
            .collateralBalanceETH
            .mul(vars.currentLiquidationThreshold)
            .sub(vars.amountToDecreaseETH.mul(vars.reserveLiquidationThreshold))
            .div(vars.collateralBalancefterDecrease);

        uint256 healthFactorAfterDecrease = calculateHealthFactorFromBalancesInternal(
            vars.collateralBalancefterDecrease,
            vars.borrowBalanceETH,
            vars.totalFeesETH,
            vars.liquidationThresholdAfterDecrease
        );

        return healthFactorAfterDecrease > HEALTH_FACTOR_LIQUIDATION_THRESHOLD;

    }

    /**
   * @notice calculates the amount of collateral needed in ETH to cover a new borrow.
   * @param _reserve the reserve from which the user wants to borrow
   * @param _amount the amount the user wants to borrow
   * @param _fee the fee for the amount that the user needs to cover
   * @param _userCurrentBorrowBalanceTH the current borrow balance of the user (before the borrow)
   * @param _userCurrentLtv the average ltv of the user given his current collateral
   * @return the total amount of collateral in ETH to cover the current borrow balance + the new amount + fee
   **/
    function calculateCollateralNeededInETH(
        address _reserve,
        uint256 _amount,
        uint256 _fee,
        uint256 _userCurrentBorrowBalanceTH,
        uint256 _userCurrentFeesETH,
        uint256 _userCurrentLtv
    ) external view returns (uint256) {
        uint256 reserveDecimals = core.getReserveDecimals(_reserve);

        IPriceOracleGetter oracle = IPriceOracleGetter(addressesProvider.getPriceOracle());

        uint256 requestedBorrowAmountETH = oracle
            .getAssetPrice(_reserve)
            .mul(_amount.add(_fee))
            .div(10 ** reserveDecimals); //price is in ether

        //add the current already borrowed amount to the amount requested to calculate the total collateral needed.
        uint256 collateralNeededInETH = _userCurrentBorrowBalanceTH
            .add(_userCurrentFeesETH)
            .add(requestedBorrowAmountETH)
            .mul(100)
            .div(_userCurrentLtv); //LTV is calculated in percentage

        return collateralNeededInETH;

    }

    /**
    * @dev calculates the equivalent amount in ETH that an user can borrow, depending on the available collateral and the
    * average Loan To Value.
    * @param collateralBalanceETH the total collateral balance
    * @param borrowBalanceETH the total borrow balance
    * @param totalFeesETH the total fees
    * @param ltv the average loan to value
    * @return the amount available to borrow in ETH for the user
    **/

    function calculateAvailableBorrowsETHInternal(
        uint256 collateralBalanceETH,
        uint256 borrowBalanceETH,
        uint256 totalFeesETH,
        uint256 ltv
    ) internal view returns (uint256) {
        uint256 availableBorrowsETH = collateralBalanceETH.mul(ltv).div(100); //ltv is in percentage

        if (availableBorrowsETH < borrowBalanceETH) {
            return 0;
        }

        availableBorrowsETH = availableBorrowsETH.sub(borrowBalanceETH.add(totalFeesETH));
        //calculate fee
        uint256 borrowFee = IFeeProvider(addressesProvider.getFeeProvider())
            .calculateLoanOriginationFee(msg.sender, availableBorrowsETH);
        return availableBorrowsETH.sub(borrowFee);
    }

    /**
    * @dev calculates the health factor from the corresponding balances
    * @param collateralBalanceETH the total collateral balance in ETH
    * @param borrowBalanceETH the total borrow balance in ETH
    * @param totalFeesETH the total fees in ETH
    * @param liquidationThreshold the avg liquidation threshold
    **/
    function calculateHealthFactorFromBalancesInternal(
        uint256 collateralBalanceETH,
        uint256 borrowBalanceETH,
        uint256 totalFeesETH,
        uint256 liquidationThreshold
    ) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        if (borrowBalanceETH == 0) return uint256(-1);

        return
            (collateralBalanceETH.mul(liquidationThreshold).div(100)).wadDiv(
                borrowBalanceETH.add(totalFeesETH)
            );
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the health factor liquidation threshold
    **/
    function getHealthFactorLiquidationThreshold() public pure returns (uint256) {
        return HEALTH_FACTOR_LIQUIDATION_THRESHOLD;
    }

    /**
    * @dev accessory functions to fetch data from the lendingPoolCore
    **/
    function getReserveConfigurationData(address _reserve)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint256 ltv,
            uint256 liquidationThreshold,
            uint256 liquidationBonus,
            address rateStrategyAddress,
            bool usageAsCollateralEnabled,
            bool borrowingEnabled,
            bool stableBorrowRateEnabled,
            bool isActive
        )
    {
        (, ltv, liquidationThreshold, usageAsCollateralEnabled) = core.getReserveConfiguration(
            _reserve
        );
        stableBorrowRateEnabled = core.getReserveIsStableBorrowRateEnabled(_reserve);
        borrowingEnabled = core.isReserveBorrowingEnabled(_reserve);
        isActive = core.getReserveIsActive(_reserve);
        liquidationBonus = core.getReserveLiquidationBonus(_reserve);

        rateStrategyAddress = core.getReserveInterestRateStrategyAddress(_reserve);
    }

    function getReserveData(address _reserve)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint256 totalLiquidity,
            uint256 availableLiquidity,
            uint256 totalBorrowsStable,
            uint256 totalBorrowsVariable,
            uint256 liquidityRate,
            uint256 variableBorrowRate,
            uint256 stableBorrowRate,
            uint256 averageStableBorrowRate,
            uint256 utilizationRate,
            uint256 liquidityIndex,
            uint256 variableBorrowIndex,
            address aTokenAddress,
            uint40 lastUpdateTimestamp
        )
    {
        totalLiquidity = core.getReserveTotalLiquidity(_reserve);
        availableLiquidity = core.getReserveAvailableLiquidity(_reserve);
        totalBorrowsStable = core.getReserveTotalBorrowsStable(_reserve);
        totalBorrowsVariable = core.getReserveTotalBorrowsVariable(_reserve);
        liquidityRate = core.getReserveCurrentLiquidityRate(_reserve);
        variableBorrowRate = core.getReserveCurrentVariableBorrowRate(_reserve);
        stableBorrowRate = core.getReserveCurrentStableBorrowRate(_reserve);
        averageStableBorrowRate = core.getReserveCurrentAverageStableBorrowRate(_reserve);
        utilizationRate = core.getReserveUtilizationRate(_reserve);
        liquidityIndex = core.getReserveLiquidityCumulativeIndex(_reserve);
        variableBorrowIndex = core.getReserveVariableBorrowsCumulativeIndex(_reserve);
        aTokenAddress = core.getReserveATokenAddress(_reserve);
        lastUpdateTimestamp = core.getReserveLastUpdate(_reserve);
    }

    function getUserAccountData(address _user)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint256 totalLiquidityETH,
            uint256 totalCollateralETH,
            uint256 totalBorrowsETH,
            uint256 totalFeesETH,
            uint256 availableBorrowsETH,
            uint256 currentLiquidationThreshold,
            uint256 ltv,
            uint256 healthFactor
        )
    {
        (
            totalLiquidityETH,
            totalCollateralETH,
            totalBorrowsETH,
            totalFeesETH,
            ltv,
            currentLiquidationThreshold,
            healthFactor,

        ) = calculateUserGlobalData(_user);

        availableBorrowsETH = calculateAvailableBorrowsETHInternal(
            totalCollateralETH,
            totalBorrowsETH,
            totalFeesETH,
            ltv
        );
    }

    function getUserReserveData(address _reserve, address _user)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint256 currentATokenBalance,
            uint256 currentBorrowBalance,
            uint256 principalBorrowBalance,
            uint256 borrowRateMode,
            uint256 borrowRate,
            uint256 liquidityRate,
            uint256 originationFee,
            uint256 variableBorrowIndex,
            uint256 lastUpdateTimestamp,
            bool usageAsCollateralEnabled
        )
    {
        currentATokenBalance = AToken(core.getReserveATokenAddress(_reserve)).balanceOf(_user);
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode mode = core.getUserCurrentBorrowRateMode(_reserve, _user);
        (principalBorrowBalance, currentBorrowBalance, ) = core.getUserBorrowBalances(
            _reserve,
            _user
        );

        //default is 0, if mode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.NONE
        if (mode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE) {
            borrowRate = core.getUserCurrentStableBorrowRate(_reserve, _user);
        } else if (mode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE) {
            borrowRate = core.getReserveCurrentVariableBorrowRate(_reserve);
        }

        borrowRateMode = uint256(mode);
        liquidityRate = core.getReserveCurrentLiquidityRate(_reserve);
        originationFee = core.getUserOriginationFee(_reserve, _user);
        variableBorrowIndex = core.getUserVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex(_reserve, _user);
        lastUpdateTimestamp = core.getUserLastUpdate(_reserve, _user);
        usageAsCollateralEnabled = core.isUserUseReserveAsCollateralEnabled(_reserve, _user);
    }
}


/**
 * @title Aave ERC20 AToken
 *
 * @dev Implementation of the interest bearing token for the DLP protocol.
 * @author Aave
 */
contract AToken is ERC20, ERC20Detailed {
    using WadRayMath for uint256;

    uint256 public constant UINT_MAX_VALUE = uint256(-1);

    /**
    * @dev emitted after the redeem action
    * @param _from the address performing the redeem
    * @param _value the amount to be redeemed
    * @param _fromBalanceIncrease the cumulated balance since the last update of the user
    * @param _fromIndex the last index of the user
    **/
    event Redeem(
        address indexed _from,
        uint256 _value,
        uint256 _fromBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 _fromIndex
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted after the mint action
    * @param _from the address performing the mint
    * @param _value the amount to be minted
    * @param _fromBalanceIncrease the cumulated balance since the last update of the user
    * @param _fromIndex the last index of the user
    **/
    event MintOnDeposit(
        address indexed _from,
        uint256 _value,
        uint256 _fromBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 _fromIndex
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted during the liquidation action, when the liquidator reclaims the underlying
    * asset
    * @param _from the address from which the tokens are being burned
    * @param _value the amount to be burned
    * @param _fromBalanceIncrease the cumulated balance since the last update of the user
    * @param _fromIndex the last index of the user
    **/
    event BurnOnLiquidation(
        address indexed _from,
        uint256 _value,
        uint256 _fromBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 _fromIndex
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted during the transfer action
    * @param _from the address from which the tokens are being transferred
    * @param _to the adress of the destination
    * @param _value the amount to be minted
    * @param _fromBalanceIncrease the cumulated balance since the last update of the user
    * @param _toBalanceIncrease the cumulated balance since the last update of the destination
    * @param _fromIndex the last index of the user
    * @param _toIndex the last index of the liquidator
    **/
    event BalanceTransfer(
        address indexed _from,
        address indexed _to,
        uint256 _value,
        uint256 _fromBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 _toBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 _fromIndex,
        uint256 _toIndex
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted when the accumulation of the interest
    * by an user is redirected to another user
    * @param _from the address from which the interest is being redirected
    * @param _to the adress of the destination
    * @param _fromBalanceIncrease the cumulated balance since the last update of the user
    * @param _fromIndex the last index of the user
    **/
    event InterestStreamRedirected(
        address indexed _from,
        address indexed _to,
        uint256 _redirectedBalance,
        uint256 _fromBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 _fromIndex
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted when the redirected balance of an user is being updated
    * @param _targetAddress the address of which the balance is being updated
    * @param _targetBalanceIncrease the cumulated balance since the last update of the target
    * @param _targetIndex the last index of the user
    * @param _redirectedBalanceAdded the redirected balance being added
    * @param _redirectedBalanceRemoved the redirected balance being removed
    **/
    event RedirectedBalanceUpdated(
        address indexed _targetAddress,
        uint256 _targetBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 _targetIndex,
        uint256 _redirectedBalanceAdded,
        uint256 _redirectedBalanceRemoved
    );

    event InterestRedirectionAllowanceChanged(
        address indexed _from,
        address indexed _to
    );

    address public underlyingAssetAddress;

    mapping (address => uint256) private userIndexes;
    mapping (address => address) private interestRedirectionAddresses;
    mapping (address => uint256) private redirectedBalances;
    mapping (address => address) private interestRedirectionAllowances;

    LendingPoolAddressesProvider private addressesProvider;
    LendingPoolCore private core;
    LendingPool private pool;
    LendingPoolDataProvider private dataProvider;

    modifier onlyLendingPool {
        require(
            msg.sender == address(pool),
            "The caller of this function must be a lending pool"
        );
        _;
    }

    modifier whenTransferAllowed(address _from, uint256 _amount) {
        require(isTransferAllowed(_from, _amount), "Transfer cannot be allowed.");
        _;
    }

    constructor(
        LendingPoolAddressesProvider _addressesProvider,
        address _underlyingAsset,
        uint8 _underlyingAssetDecimals,
        string memory _name,
        string memory _symbol
    ) public ERC20Detailed(_name, _symbol, _underlyingAssetDecimals) {

        addressesProvider = _addressesProvider;
        core = LendingPoolCore(addressesProvider.getLendingPoolCore());
        pool = LendingPool(addressesProvider.getLendingPool());
        dataProvider = LendingPoolDataProvider(addressesProvider.getLendingPoolDataProvider());
        underlyingAssetAddress = _underlyingAsset;
    }

    /**
     * @notice ERC20 implementation internal function backing transfer() and transferFrom()
     * @dev validates the transfer before allowing it. NOTE: This is not standard ERC20 behavior
     **/
    function _transfer(address _from, address _to, uint256 _amount) internal whenTransferAllowed(_from, _amount) {

        executeTransferInternal(_from, _to, _amount);
    }


    /**
    * @dev redirects the interest generated to a target address.
    * when the interest is redirected, the user balance is added to
    * the recepient redirected balance.
    * @param _to the address to which the interest will be redirected
    **/
    function redirectInterestStream(address _to) external {
        redirectInterestStreamInternal(msg.sender, _to);
    }

    /**
    * @dev redirects the interest generated by _from to a target address.
    * when the interest is redirected, the user balance is added to
    * the recepient redirected balance. The caller needs to have allowance on
    * the interest redirection to be able to execute the function.
    * @param _from the address of the user whom interest is being redirected
    * @param _to the address to which the interest will be redirected
    **/
    function redirectInterestStreamOf(address _from, address _to) external {
        require(
            msg.sender == interestRedirectionAllowances[_from],
            "Caller is not allowed to redirect the interest of the user"
        );
        redirectInterestStreamInternal(_from,_to);
    }

    /**
    * @dev gives allowance to an address to execute the interest redirection
    * on behalf of the caller.
    * @param _to the address to which the interest will be redirected. Pass address(0) to reset
    * the allowance.
    **/
    function allowInterestRedirectionTo(address _to) external {
        require(_to != msg.sender, "User cannot give allowance to himself");
        interestRedirectionAllowances[msg.sender] = _to;
        emit InterestRedirectionAllowanceChanged(
            msg.sender,
            _to
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev redeems aToken for the underlying asset
    * @param _amount the amount being redeemed
    **/
    function redeem(uint256 _amount) external {

        require(_amount > 0, "Amount to redeem needs to be > 0");

        //cumulates the balance of the user
        (,
        uint256 currentBalance,
        uint256 balanceIncrease,
        uint256 index) = cumulateBalanceInternal(msg.sender);

        uint256 amountToRedeem = _amount;

        //if amount is equal to uint(-1), the user wants to redeem everything
        if(_amount == UINT_MAX_VALUE){
            amountToRedeem = currentBalance;
        }

        require(amountToRedeem <= currentBalance, "User cannot redeem more than the available balance");

        //check that the user is allowed to redeem the amount
        require(isTransferAllowed(msg.sender, amountToRedeem), "Transfer cannot be allowed.");

        //if the user is redirecting his interest towards someone else,
        //we update the redirected balance of the redirection address by adding the accrued interest,
        //and removing the amount to redeem
        updateRedirectedBalanceOfRedirectionAddressInternal(msg.sender, balanceIncrease, amountToRedeem);

        // burns tokens equivalent to the amount requested
        _burn(msg.sender, amountToRedeem);

        bool userIndexReset = false;
        //reset the user data if the remaining balance is 0
        if(currentBalance.sub(amountToRedeem) == 0){
            userIndexReset = resetDataOnZeroBalanceInternal(msg.sender);
        }

        // executes redeem of the underlying asset
        pool.redeemUnderlying(
            underlyingAssetAddress,
            msg.sender,
            amountToRedeem,
            currentBalance.sub(amountToRedeem)
        );

        emit Redeem(msg.sender, amountToRedeem, balanceIncrease, userIndexReset ? 0 : index);
    }

    /**
     * @dev mints token in the event of users depositing the underlying asset into the lending pool
     * only lending pools can call this function
     * @param _account the address receiving the minted tokens
     * @param _amount the amount of tokens to mint
     */
    function mintOnDeposit(address _account, uint256 _amount) external onlyLendingPool {

        //cumulates the balance of the user
        (,
        ,
        uint256 balanceIncrease,
        uint256 index) = cumulateBalanceInternal(_account);

         //if the user is redirecting his interest towards someone else,
        //we update the redirected balance of the redirection address by adding the accrued interest
        //and the amount deposited
        updateRedirectedBalanceOfRedirectionAddressInternal(_account, balanceIncrease.add(_amount), 0);

        //mint an equivalent amount of tokens to cover the new deposit
        _mint(_account, _amount);

        emit MintOnDeposit(_account, _amount, balanceIncrease, index);
    }

    /**
     * @dev burns token in the event of a borrow being liquidated, in case the liquidators reclaims the underlying asset
     * Transfer of the liquidated asset is executed by the lending pool contract.
     * only lending pools can call this function
     * @param _account the address from which burn the aTokens
     * @param _value the amount to burn
     **/
    function burnOnLiquidation(address _account, uint256 _value) external onlyLendingPool {

        //cumulates the balance of the user being liquidated
        (,uint256 accountBalance,uint256 balanceIncrease,uint256 index) = cumulateBalanceInternal(_account);

        //adds the accrued interest and substracts the burned amount to
        //the redirected balance
        updateRedirectedBalanceOfRedirectionAddressInternal(_account, balanceIncrease, _value);

        //burns the requested amount of tokens
        _burn(_account, _value);

        bool userIndexReset = false;
        //reset the user data if the remaining balance is 0
        if(accountBalance.sub(_value) == 0){
            userIndexReset = resetDataOnZeroBalanceInternal(_account);
        }

        emit BurnOnLiquidation(_account, _value, balanceIncrease, userIndexReset ? 0 : index);
    }

    /**
     * @dev transfers tokens in the event of a borrow being liquidated, in case the liquidators reclaims the aToken
     *      only lending pools can call this function
     * @param _from the address from which transfer the aTokens
     * @param _to the destination address
     * @param _value the amount to transfer
     **/
    function transferOnLiquidation(address _from, address _to, uint256 _value) external onlyLendingPool {

        //being a normal transfer, the Transfer() and BalanceTransfer() are emitted
        //so no need to emit a specific event here
        executeTransferInternal(_from, _to, _value);
    }

    /**
    * @dev calculates the balance of the user, which is the
    * principal balance + interest generated by the principal balance + interest generated by the redirected balance
    * @param _user the user for which the balance is being calculated
    * @return the total balance of the user
    **/
    function balanceOf(address _user) public view returns(uint256) {

        //current principal balance of the user
        uint256 currentPrincipalBalance = super.balanceOf(_user);
        //balance redirected by other users to _user for interest rate accrual
        uint256 redirectedBalance = redirectedBalances[_user];

        if(currentPrincipalBalance == 0 && redirectedBalance == 0){
            return 0;
        }
        //if the _user is not redirecting the interest to anybody, accrues
        //the interest for himself

        if(interestRedirectionAddresses[_user] == address(0)){

            //accruing for himself means that both the principal balance and
            //the redirected balance partecipate in the interest
            return calculateCumulatedBalanceInternal(
                _user,
                currentPrincipalBalance.add(redirectedBalance)
                )
                .sub(redirectedBalance);
        }
        else {
            //if the user redirected the interest, then only the redirected
            //balance generates interest. In that case, the interest generated
            //by the redirected balance is added to the current principal balance.
            return currentPrincipalBalance.add(
                calculateCumulatedBalanceInternal(
                    _user,
                    redirectedBalance
                )
                .sub(redirectedBalance)
            );
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the principal balance of the user. The principal balance is the last
    * updated stored balance, which does not consider the perpetually accruing interest.
    * @param _user the address of the user
    * @return the principal balance of the user
    **/
    function principalBalanceOf(address _user) external view returns(uint256) {
        return super.balanceOf(_user);
    }


    /**
    * @dev calculates the total supply of the specific aToken
    * since the balance of every single user increases over time, the total supply
    * does that too.
    * @return the current total supply
    **/
    function totalSupply() public view returns(uint256) {

        uint256 currentSupplyPrincipal = super.totalSupply();

        if(currentSupplyPrincipal == 0){
            return 0;
        }

        return currentSupplyPrincipal
            .wadToRay()
            .rayMul(core.getReserveNormalizedIncome(underlyingAssetAddress))
            .rayToWad();
    }


    /**
     * @dev Used to validate transfers before actually executing them.
     * @param _user address of the user to check
     * @param _amount the amount to check
     * @return true if the _user can transfer _amount, false otherwise
     **/
    function isTransferAllowed(address _user, uint256 _amount) public view returns (bool) {
        return dataProvider.balanceDecreaseAllowed(underlyingAssetAddress, _user, _amount);
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the last index of the user, used to calculate the balance of the user
    * @param _user address of the user
    * @return the last user index
    **/
    function getUserIndex(address _user) external view returns(uint256) {
        return userIndexes[_user];
    }


    /**
    * @dev returns the address to which the interest is redirected
    * @param _user address of the user
    * @return 0 if there is no redirection, an address otherwise
    **/
    function getInterestRedirectionAddress(address _user) external view returns(address) {
        return interestRedirectionAddresses[_user];
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the redirected balance of the user. The redirected balance is the balance
    * redirected by other accounts to the user, that is accrueing interest for him.
    * @param _user address of the user
    * @return the total redirected balance
    **/
    function getRedirectedBalance(address _user) external view returns(uint256) {
        return redirectedBalances[_user];
    }

    /**
    * @dev accumulates the accrued interest of the user to the principal balance
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the interest is being accumulated
    * @return the previous principal balance, the new principal balance, the balance increase
    * and the new user index
    **/
    function cumulateBalanceInternal(address _user)
        internal
        returns(uint256, uint256, uint256, uint256) {

        uint256 previousPrincipalBalance = super.balanceOf(_user);

        //calculate the accrued interest since the last accumulation
        uint256 balanceIncrease = balanceOf(_user).sub(previousPrincipalBalance);
        //mints an amount of tokens equivalent to the amount accumulated
        _mint(_user, balanceIncrease);
        //updates the user index
        uint256 index = userIndexes[_user] = core.getReserveNormalizedIncome(underlyingAssetAddress);
        return (
            previousPrincipalBalance,
            previousPrincipalBalance.add(balanceIncrease),
            balanceIncrease,
            index
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the redirected balance of the user. If the user is not redirecting his
    * interest, nothing is executed.
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the interest is being accumulated
    * @param _balanceToAdd the amount to add to the redirected balance
    * @param _balanceToRemove the amount to remove from the redirected balance
    **/
    function updateRedirectedBalanceOfRedirectionAddressInternal(
        address _user,
        uint256 _balanceToAdd,
        uint256 _balanceToRemove
    ) internal {

        address redirectionAddress = interestRedirectionAddresses[_user];
        //if there isn't any redirection, nothing to be done
        if(redirectionAddress == address(0)){
            return;
        }

        //compound balances of the redirected address
        (,,uint256 balanceIncrease, uint256 index) = cumulateBalanceInternal(redirectionAddress);

        //updating the redirected balance
        redirectedBalances[redirectionAddress] = redirectedBalances[redirectionAddress]
            .add(_balanceToAdd)
            .sub(_balanceToRemove);

        //if the interest of redirectionAddress is also being redirected, we need to update
        //the redirected balance of the redirection target by adding the balance increase
        address targetOfRedirectionAddress = interestRedirectionAddresses[redirectionAddress];

        if(targetOfRedirectionAddress != address(0)){
            redirectedBalances[targetOfRedirectionAddress] = redirectedBalances[targetOfRedirectionAddress].add(balanceIncrease);
        }

        emit RedirectedBalanceUpdated(
            redirectionAddress,
            balanceIncrease,
            index,
            _balanceToAdd,
            _balanceToRemove
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev calculate the interest accrued by _user on a specific balance
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the interest is being accumulated
    * @param _balance the balance on which the interest is calculated
    * @return the interest rate accrued
    **/
    function calculateCumulatedBalanceInternal(
        address _user,
        uint256 _balance
    ) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return _balance
            .wadToRay()
            .rayMul(core.getReserveNormalizedIncome(underlyingAssetAddress))
            .rayDiv(userIndexes[_user])
            .rayToWad();
    }

    /**
    * @dev executes the transfer of aTokens, invoked by both _transfer() and
    *      transferOnLiquidation()
    * @param _from the address from which transfer the aTokens
    * @param _to the destination address
    * @param _value the amount to transfer
    **/
    function executeTransferInternal(
        address _from,
        address _to,
        uint256 _value
    ) internal {

        require(_value > 0, "Transferred amount needs to be greater than zero");

        //cumulate the balance of the sender
        (,
        uint256 fromBalance,
        uint256 fromBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 fromIndex
        ) = cumulateBalanceInternal(_from);

        //cumulate the balance of the receiver
        (,
        ,
        uint256 toBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 toIndex
        ) = cumulateBalanceInternal(_to);

        //if the sender is redirecting his interest towards someone else,
        //adds to the redirected balance the accrued interest and removes the amount
        //being transferred
        updateRedirectedBalanceOfRedirectionAddressInternal(_from, fromBalanceIncrease, _value);

        //if the receiver is redirecting his interest towards someone else,
        //adds to the redirected balance the accrued interest and the amount
        //being transferred
        updateRedirectedBalanceOfRedirectionAddressInternal(_to, toBalanceIncrease.add(_value), 0);

        //performs the transfer
        super._transfer(_from, _to, _value);

        bool fromIndexReset = false;
        //reset the user data if the remaining balance is 0
        if(fromBalance.sub(_value) == 0){
            fromIndexReset = resetDataOnZeroBalanceInternal(_from);
        }

        emit BalanceTransfer(
            _from,
            _to,
            _value,
            fromBalanceIncrease,
            toBalanceIncrease,
            fromIndexReset ? 0 : fromIndex,
            toIndex
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev executes the redirection of the interest from one address to another.
    * immediately after redirection, the destination address will start to accrue interest.
    * @param _from the address from which transfer the aTokens
    * @param _to the destination address
    **/
    function redirectInterestStreamInternal(
        address _from,
        address _to
    ) internal {

        address currentRedirectionAddress = interestRedirectionAddresses[_from];

        require(_to != currentRedirectionAddress, "Interest is already redirected to the user");

        //accumulates the accrued interest to the principal
        (uint256 previousPrincipalBalance,
        uint256 fromBalance,
        uint256 balanceIncrease,
        uint256 fromIndex) = cumulateBalanceInternal(_from);

        require(fromBalance > 0, "Interest stream can only be redirected if there is a valid balance");

        //if the user is already redirecting the interest to someone, before changing
        //the redirection address we substract the redirected balance of the previous
        //recipient
        if(currentRedirectionAddress != address(0)){
            updateRedirectedBalanceOfRedirectionAddressInternal(_from,0, previousPrincipalBalance);
        }

        //if the user is redirecting the interest back to himself,
        //we simply set to 0 the interest redirection address
        if(_to == _from) {
            interestRedirectionAddresses[_from] = address(0);
            emit InterestStreamRedirected(
                _from,
                address(0),
                fromBalance,
                balanceIncrease,
                fromIndex
            );
            return;
        }

        //first set the redirection address to the new recipient
        interestRedirectionAddresses[_from] = _to;

        //adds the user balance to the redirected balance of the destination
        updateRedirectedBalanceOfRedirectionAddressInternal(_from,fromBalance,0);

        emit InterestStreamRedirected(
            _from,
            _to,
            fromBalance,
            balanceIncrease,
            fromIndex
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev function to reset the interest stream redirection and the user index, if the
    * user has no balance left.
    * @param _user the address of the user
    * @return true if the user index has also been reset, false otherwise. useful to emit the proper user index value
    **/
    function resetDataOnZeroBalanceInternal(address _user) internal returns(bool) {

        //if the user has 0 principal balance, the interest stream redirection gets reset
        interestRedirectionAddresses[_user] = address(0);

        //emits a InterestStreamRedirected event to notify that the redirection has been reset
        emit InterestStreamRedirected(_user, address(0),0,0,0);

        //if the redirected balance is also 0, we clear up the user index
        if(redirectedBalances[_user] == 0){
            userIndexes[_user] = 0;
            return true;
        }
        else{
            return false;
        }
    }
}

/**
* @title IFlashLoanReceiver interface
* @notice Interface for the Aave fee IFlashLoanReceiver.
* @author Aave
* @dev implement this interface to develop a flashloan-compatible flashLoanReceiver contract
**/
interface IFlashLoanReceiver {

    function executeOperation(address _reserve, uint256 _amount, uint256 _fee, bytes calldata _params) external;
}

/**
* @title ILendingRateOracle interface
* @notice Interface for the Aave borrow rate oracle. Provides the average market borrow rate to be used as a base for the stable borrow rate calculations
**/

interface ILendingRateOracle {
    /**
    @dev returns the market borrow rate in ray
    **/
    function getMarketBorrowRate(address _asset) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
    @dev sets the market borrow rate. Rate value must be in ray
    **/
    function setMarketBorrowRate(address _asset, uint256 _rate) external;
}

/**
@title IReserveInterestRateStrategyInterface interface
@notice Interface for the calculation of the interest rates.
*/

interface IReserveInterestRateStrategy {

    /**
    * @dev returns the base variable borrow rate, in rays
    */

    function getBaseVariableBorrowRate() external view returns (uint256);
    /**
    * @dev calculates the liquidity, stable, and variable rates depending on the current utilization rate
    *      and the base parameters
    *
    */
    function calculateInterestRates(
        address _reserve,
        uint256 _utilizationRate,
        uint256 _totalBorrowsStable,
        uint256 _totalBorrowsVariable,
        uint256 _averageStableBorrowRate)
    external
    view
    returns (uint256 liquidityRate, uint256 stableBorrowRate, uint256 variableBorrowRate);
}

library EthAddressLib {

    /**
    * @dev returns the address used within the protocol to identify ETH
    * @return the address assigned to ETH
     */
    function ethAddress() internal pure returns(address) {
        return 0xEeeeeEeeeEeEeeEeEeEeeEEEeeeeEeeeeeeeEEeE;
    }
}

/**
* @title LendingPoolCore contract
* @author Aave
* @notice Holds the state of the lending pool and all the funds deposited
* @dev NOTE: The core does not enforce security checks on the update of the state
* (eg, updateStateOnBorrow() does not enforce that borrowed is enabled on the reserve).
* The check that an action can be performed is a duty of the overlying LendingPool contract.
**/

contract LendingPoolCore is VersionedInitializable {
    using SafeMath for uint256;
    using WadRayMath for uint256;
    using CoreLibrary for CoreLibrary.ReserveData;
    using CoreLibrary for CoreLibrary.UserReserveData;
    using SafeERC20 for ERC20;
    using Address for address payable;

    /**
    * @dev Emitted when the state of a reserve is updated
    * @param reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param liquidityRate the new liquidity rate
    * @param stableBorrowRate the new stable borrow rate
    * @param variableBorrowRate the new variable borrow rate
    * @param liquidityIndex the new liquidity index
    * @param variableBorrowIndex the new variable borrow index
    **/
    event ReserveUpdated(
        address indexed reserve,
        uint256 liquidityRate,
        uint256 stableBorrowRate,
        uint256 variableBorrowRate,
        uint256 liquidityIndex,
        uint256 variableBorrowIndex
    );

    address public lendingPoolAddress;

    LendingPoolAddressesProvider public addressesProvider;

    /**
    * @dev only lending pools can use functions affected by this modifier
    **/
    modifier onlyLendingPool {
        require(lendingPoolAddress == msg.sender, "The caller must be a lending pool contract");
        _;
    }

    /**
    * @dev only lending pools configurator can use functions affected by this modifier
    **/
    modifier onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        require(
            addressesProvider.getLendingPoolConfigurator() == msg.sender,
            "The caller must be a lending pool configurator contract"
        );
        _;
    }

    mapping(address => CoreLibrary.ReserveData) internal reserves;
    mapping(address => mapping(address => CoreLibrary.UserReserveData)) internal usersReserveData;

    address[] public reservesList;

    uint256 public constant CORE_REVISION = 0x4;

    /**
    * @dev returns the revision number of the contract
    **/
    function getRevision() internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return CORE_REVISION;
    }

    /**
    * @dev initializes the Core contract, invoked upon registration on the AddressesProvider
    * @param _addressesProvider the addressesProvider contract
    **/

    function initialize(LendingPoolAddressesProvider _addressesProvider) public initializer {
        addressesProvider = _addressesProvider;
        refreshConfigInternal();
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the core as a result of a deposit action
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve in which the deposit is happening
    * @param _user the address of the the user depositing
    * @param _amount the amount being deposited
    * @param _isFirstDeposit true if the user is depositing for the first time
    **/

    function updateStateOnDeposit(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _amount,
        bool _isFirstDeposit
    ) external onlyLendingPool {
        reserves[_reserve].updateCumulativeIndexes();
        updateReserveInterestRatesAndTimestampInternal(_reserve, _amount, 0);

        if (_isFirstDeposit) {
            //if this is the first deposit of the user, we configure the deposit as enabled to be used as collateral
            setUserUseReserveAsCollateral(_reserve, _user, true);
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the core as a result of a redeem action
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve in which the redeem is happening
    * @param _user the address of the the user redeeming
    * @param _amountRedeemed the amount being redeemed
    * @param _userRedeemedEverything true if the user is redeeming everything
    **/
    function updateStateOnRedeem(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _amountRedeemed,
        bool _userRedeemedEverything
    ) external onlyLendingPool {
        //compound liquidity and variable borrow interests
        reserves[_reserve].updateCumulativeIndexes();
        updateReserveInterestRatesAndTimestampInternal(_reserve, 0, _amountRedeemed);

        //if user redeemed everything the useReserveAsCollateral flag is reset
        if (_userRedeemedEverything) {
            setUserUseReserveAsCollateral(_reserve, _user, false);
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the core as a result of a flashloan action
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve in which the flashloan is happening
    * @param _income the income of the protocol as a result of the action
    **/
    function updateStateOnFlashLoan(
        address _reserve,
        uint256 _availableLiquidityBefore,
        uint256 _income,
        uint256 _protocolFee
    ) external onlyLendingPool {
        transferFlashLoanProtocolFeeInternal(_reserve, _protocolFee);

        //compounding the cumulated interest
        reserves[_reserve].updateCumulativeIndexes();

        uint256 totalLiquidityBefore = _availableLiquidityBefore.add(
            getReserveTotalBorrows(_reserve)
        );

        //compounding the received fee into the reserve
        reserves[_reserve].cumulateToLiquidityIndex(totalLiquidityBefore, _income);

        //refresh interest rates
        updateReserveInterestRatesAndTimestampInternal(_reserve, _income, 0);
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the core as a consequence of a borrow action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user is borrowing
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _amountBorrowed the new amount borrowed
    * @param _borrowFee the fee on the amount borrowed
    * @param _rateMode the borrow rate mode (stable, variable)
    * @return the new borrow rate for the user
    **/
    function updateStateOnBorrow(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _amountBorrowed,
        uint256 _borrowFee,
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode _rateMode
    ) external onlyLendingPool returns (uint256, uint256) {
        // getting the previous borrow data of the user
        (uint256 principalBorrowBalance, , uint256 balanceIncrease) = getUserBorrowBalances(
            _reserve,
            _user
        );

        updateReserveStateOnBorrowInternal(
            _reserve,
            _user,
            principalBorrowBalance,
            balanceIncrease,
            _amountBorrowed,
            _rateMode
        );

        updateUserStateOnBorrowInternal(
            _reserve,
            _user,
            _amountBorrowed,
            balanceIncrease,
            _borrowFee,
            _rateMode
        );

        updateReserveInterestRatesAndTimestampInternal(_reserve, 0, _amountBorrowed);

        return (getUserCurrentBorrowRate(_reserve, _user), balanceIncrease);
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the core as a consequence of a repay action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user is repaying
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _paybackAmountMinusFees the amount being paid back minus fees
    * @param _originationFeeRepaid the fee on the amount that is being repaid
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    * @param _repaidWholeLoan true if the user is repaying the whole loan
    **/

    function updateStateOnRepay(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _paybackAmountMinusFees,
        uint256 _originationFeeRepaid,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease,
        bool _repaidWholeLoan
    ) external onlyLendingPool {
        updateReserveStateOnRepayInternal(
            _reserve,
            _user,
            _paybackAmountMinusFees,
            _balanceIncrease
        );
        updateUserStateOnRepayInternal(
            _reserve,
            _user,
            _paybackAmountMinusFees,
            _originationFeeRepaid,
            _balanceIncrease,
            _repaidWholeLoan
        );

        updateReserveInterestRatesAndTimestampInternal(_reserve, _paybackAmountMinusFees, 0);
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the core as a consequence of a swap rate action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user is repaying
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _principalBorrowBalance the amount borrowed by the user
    * @param _compoundedBorrowBalance the amount borrowed plus accrued interest
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    * @param _currentRateMode the current interest rate mode for the user
    **/
    function updateStateOnSwapRate(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _principalBorrowBalance,
        uint256 _compoundedBorrowBalance,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease,
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode _currentRateMode
    ) external onlyLendingPool returns (CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode, uint256) {
        updateReserveStateOnSwapRateInternal(
            _reserve,
            _user,
            _principalBorrowBalance,
            _compoundedBorrowBalance,
            _currentRateMode
        );

        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode newRateMode = updateUserStateOnSwapRateInternal(
            _reserve,
            _user,
            _balanceIncrease,
            _currentRateMode
        );

        updateReserveInterestRatesAndTimestampInternal(_reserve, 0, 0);

        return (newRateMode, getUserCurrentBorrowRate(_reserve, _user));
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the core as a consequence of a liquidation action.
    * @param _principalReserve the address of the principal reserve that is being repaid
    * @param _collateralReserve the address of the collateral reserve that is being liquidated
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _amountToLiquidate the amount being repaid by the liquidator
    * @param _collateralToLiquidate the amount of collateral being liquidated
    * @param _feeLiquidated the amount of origination fee being liquidated
    * @param _liquidatedCollateralForFee the amount of collateral equivalent to the origination fee + bonus
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    * @param _liquidatorReceivesAToken true if the liquidator will receive aTokens, false otherwise
    **/
    function updateStateOnLiquidation(
        address _principalReserve,
        address _collateralReserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _amountToLiquidate,
        uint256 _collateralToLiquidate,
        uint256 _feeLiquidated,
        uint256 _liquidatedCollateralForFee,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease,
        bool _liquidatorReceivesAToken
    ) external onlyLendingPool {
        updatePrincipalReserveStateOnLiquidationInternal(
            _principalReserve,
            _user,
            _amountToLiquidate,
            _balanceIncrease
        );

        updateCollateralReserveStateOnLiquidationInternal(
            _collateralReserve
        );

        updateUserStateOnLiquidationInternal(
            _principalReserve,
            _user,
            _amountToLiquidate,
            _feeLiquidated,
            _balanceIncrease
        );

        updateReserveInterestRatesAndTimestampInternal(_principalReserve, _amountToLiquidate, 0);

        if (!_liquidatorReceivesAToken) {
            updateReserveInterestRatesAndTimestampInternal(
                _collateralReserve,
                0,
                _collateralToLiquidate.add(_liquidatedCollateralForFee)
            );
        }

    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the core as a consequence of a stable rate rebalance
    * @param _reserve the address of the principal reserve where the user borrowed
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    * @return the new stable rate for the user
    **/
    function updateStateOnRebalance(address _reserve, address _user, uint256 _balanceIncrease)
        external
        onlyLendingPool
        returns (uint256)
    {
        updateReserveStateOnRebalanceInternal(_reserve, _user, _balanceIncrease);

        //update user data and rebalance the rate
        updateUserStateOnRebalanceInternal(_reserve, _user, _balanceIncrease);
        updateReserveInterestRatesAndTimestampInternal(_reserve, 0, 0);
        return usersReserveData[_user][_reserve].stableBorrowRate;
    }

    /**
    * @dev enables or disables a reserve as collateral
    * @param _reserve the address of the principal reserve where the user deposited
    * @param _user the address of the depositor
    * @param _useAsCollateral true if the depositor wants to use the reserve as collateral
    **/
    function setUserUseReserveAsCollateral(address _reserve, address _user, bool _useAsCollateral)
        public
        onlyLendingPool
    {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
        user.useAsCollateral = _useAsCollateral;
    }

    /**
    * @notice ETH/token transfer functions
    **/

    /**
    * @dev fallback function enforces that the caller is a contract, to support flashloan transfers
    **/
    function() external payable {
        //only contracts can send ETH to the core
        require(msg.sender.isContract(), "Only contracts can send ether to the Lending pool core");

    }

    /**
    * @dev transfers to the user a specific amount from the reserve.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve where the transfer is happening
    * @param _user the address of the user receiving the transfer
    * @param _amount the amount being transferred
    **/
    function transferToUser(address _reserve, address payable _user, uint256 _amount)
        external
        onlyLendingPool
    {
        if (_reserve != EthAddressLib.ethAddress()) {
            ERC20(_reserve).safeTransfer(_user, _amount);
        } else {
            //solium-disable-next-line
            (bool result, ) = _user.call.value(_amount).gas(50000)("");
            require(result, "Transfer of ETH failed");
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev transfers the protocol fees to the fees collection address
    * @param _token the address of the token being transferred
    * @param _user the address of the user from where the transfer is happening
    * @param _amount the amount being transferred
    * @param _destination the fee receiver address
    **/

    function transferToFeeCollectionAddress(
        address _token,
        address _user,
        uint256 _amount,
        address _destination
    ) external payable onlyLendingPool {
        address payable feeAddress = address(uint160(_destination)); //cast the address to payable

        if (_token != EthAddressLib.ethAddress()) {
            require(
                msg.value == 0,
                "User is sending ETH along with the ERC20 transfer. Check the value attribute of the transaction"
            );
            ERC20(_token).safeTransferFrom(_user, feeAddress, _amount);
        } else {
            require(msg.value >= _amount, "The amount and the value sent to deposit do not match");
            //solium-disable-next-line
            (bool result, ) = feeAddress.call.value(_amount).gas(50000)("");
            require(result, "Transfer of ETH failed");
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev transfers the fees to the fees collection address in the case of liquidation
    * @param _token the address of the token being transferred
    * @param _amount the amount being transferred
    * @param _destination the fee receiver address
    **/
    function liquidateFee(
        address _token,
        uint256 _amount,
        address _destination
    ) external payable onlyLendingPool {
        address payable feeAddress = address(uint160(_destination)); //cast the address to payable
        require(
            msg.value == 0,
            "Fee liquidation does not require any transfer of value"
        );

        if (_token != EthAddressLib.ethAddress()) {
            ERC20(_token).safeTransfer(feeAddress, _amount);
        } else {
            //solium-disable-next-line
            (bool result, ) = feeAddress.call.value(_amount).gas(50000)("");
            require(result, "Transfer of ETH failed");
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev transfers an amount from a user to the destination reserve
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve where the amount is being transferred
    * @param _user the address of the user from where the transfer is happening
    * @param _amount the amount being transferred
    **/
    function transferToReserve(address _reserve, address payable _user, uint256 _amount)
        external
        payable
        onlyLendingPool
    {
        if (_reserve != EthAddressLib.ethAddress()) {
            require(msg.value == 0, "User is sending ETH along with the ERC20 transfer.");
            ERC20(_reserve).safeTransferFrom(_user, address(this), _amount);

        } else {
            require(msg.value >= _amount, "The amount and the value sent to deposit do not match");

            if (msg.value > _amount) {
                //send back excess ETH
                uint256 excessAmount = msg.value.sub(_amount);
                //solium-disable-next-line
                (bool result, ) = _user.call.value(excessAmount).gas(50000)("");
                require(result, "Transfer of ETH failed");
            }
        }
    }

    /**
    * @notice data access functions
    **/

    /**
    * @dev returns the basic data (balances, fee accrued, reserve enabled/disabled as collateral)
    * needed to calculate the global account data in the LendingPoolDataProvider
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user
    * @return the user deposited balance, the principal borrow balance, the fee, and if the reserve is enabled as collateral or not
    **/
    function getUserBasicReserveData(address _reserve, address _user)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256, uint256, uint256, bool)
    {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];

        uint256 underlyingBalance = getUserUnderlyingAssetBalance(_reserve, _user);

        if (user.principalBorrowBalance == 0) {
            return (underlyingBalance, 0, 0, user.useAsCollateral);
        }

        return (
            underlyingBalance,
            user.getCompoundedBorrowBalance(reserve),
            user.originationFee,
            user.useAsCollateral
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev checks if a user is allowed to borrow at a stable rate
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @param _user the user
    * @param _amount the amount the the user wants to borrow
    * @return true if the user is allowed to borrow at a stable rate, false otherwise
    **/

    function isUserAllowedToBorrowAtStable(address _reserve, address _user, uint256 _amount)
        external
        view
        returns (bool)
    {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];

        if (!reserve.isStableBorrowRateEnabled) return false;

        return
            !user.useAsCollateral ||
            !reserve.usageAsCollateralEnabled ||
            _amount > getUserUnderlyingAssetBalance(_reserve, _user);
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the underlying asset balance of a user based on the corresponding aToken balance.
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @param _user the user address
    * @return the underlying deposit balance of the user
    **/

    function getUserUnderlyingAssetBalance(address _reserve, address _user)
        public
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        AToken aToken = AToken(reserves[_reserve].aTokenAddress);
        return aToken.balanceOf(_user);

    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the interest rate strategy contract address for the reserve
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the address of the interest rate strategy contract
    **/
    function getReserveInterestRateStrategyAddress(address _reserve) public view returns (address) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.interestRateStrategyAddress;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the aToken contract address for the reserve
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the address of the aToken contract
    **/

    function getReserveATokenAddress(address _reserve) public view returns (address) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.aTokenAddress;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the available liquidity in the reserve. The available liquidity is the balance of the core contract
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the available liquidity
    **/
    function getReserveAvailableLiquidity(address _reserve) public view returns (uint256) {
        uint256 balance = 0;

        if (_reserve == EthAddressLib.ethAddress()) {
            balance = address(this).balance;
        } else {
            balance = IERC20(_reserve).balanceOf(address(this));
        }
        return balance;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the total liquidity in the reserve. The total liquidity is the balance of the core contract + total borrows
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the total liquidity
    **/
    function getReserveTotalLiquidity(address _reserve) public view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return getReserveAvailableLiquidity(_reserve).add(reserve.getTotalBorrows());
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the normalized income of the reserve. a value of 1e27 means there is no income. A value of 2e27 means there
    * there has been 100% income.
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve normalized income
    **/
    function getReserveNormalizedIncome(address _reserve) external view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.getNormalizedIncome();
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve total borrows
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the total borrows (stable + variable)
    **/
    function getReserveTotalBorrows(address _reserve) public view returns (uint256) {
        return reserves[_reserve].getTotalBorrows();
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve total borrows stable
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the total borrows stable
    **/
    function getReserveTotalBorrowsStable(address _reserve) external view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.totalBorrowsStable;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve total borrows variable
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the total borrows variable
    **/

    function getReserveTotalBorrowsVariable(address _reserve) external view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.totalBorrowsVariable;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve liquidation threshold
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve liquidation threshold
    **/

    function getReserveLiquidationThreshold(address _reserve) external view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.liquidationThreshold;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve liquidation bonus
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve liquidation bonus
    **/

    function getReserveLiquidationBonus(address _reserve) external view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.liquidationBonus;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve current variable borrow rate. Is the base variable borrow rate if the reserve is empty
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve current variable borrow rate
    **/

    function getReserveCurrentVariableBorrowRate(address _reserve) external view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];

        if (reserve.currentVariableBorrowRate == 0) {
            return
                IReserveInterestRateStrategy(reserve.interestRateStrategyAddress)
                .getBaseVariableBorrowRate();
        }
        return reserve.currentVariableBorrowRate;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve current stable borrow rate. Is the market rate if the reserve is empty
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve current stable borrow rate
    **/

    function getReserveCurrentStableBorrowRate(address _reserve) public view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        ILendingRateOracle oracle = ILendingRateOracle(addressesProvider.getLendingRateOracle());

        if (reserve.currentStableBorrowRate == 0) {
            //no stable rate borrows yet
            return oracle.getMarketBorrowRate(_reserve);
        }

        return reserve.currentStableBorrowRate;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve average stable borrow rate. The average stable rate is the weighted average
    * of all the loans taken at stable rate.
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve current average borrow rate
    **/
    function getReserveCurrentAverageStableBorrowRate(address _reserve)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.currentAverageStableBorrowRate;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve liquidity rate
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve liquidity rate
    **/
    function getReserveCurrentLiquidityRate(address _reserve) external view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.currentLiquidityRate;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve liquidity cumulative index
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve liquidity cumulative index
    **/
    function getReserveLiquidityCumulativeIndex(address _reserve) external view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the reserve variable borrow index
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve variable borrow index
    **/
    function getReserveVariableBorrowsCumulativeIndex(address _reserve)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex;
    }

    /**
    * @dev this function aggregates the configuration parameters of the reserve.
    * It's used in the LendingPoolDataProvider specifically to save gas, and avoid
    * multiple external contract calls to fetch the same data.
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve decimals
    * @return the base ltv as collateral
    * @return the liquidation threshold
    * @return if the reserve is used as collateral or not
    **/
    function getReserveConfiguration(address _reserve)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256, uint256, uint256, bool)
    {
        uint256 decimals;
        uint256 baseLTVasCollateral;
        uint256 liquidationThreshold;
        bool usageAsCollateralEnabled;

        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        decimals = reserve.decimals;
        baseLTVasCollateral = reserve.baseLTVasCollateral;
        liquidationThreshold = reserve.liquidationThreshold;
        usageAsCollateralEnabled = reserve.usageAsCollateralEnabled;

        return (decimals, baseLTVasCollateral, liquidationThreshold, usageAsCollateralEnabled);
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the decimals of the reserve
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return the reserve decimals
    **/
    function getReserveDecimals(address _reserve) external view returns (uint256) {
        return reserves[_reserve].decimals;
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns true if the reserve is enabled for borrowing
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return true if the reserve is enabled for borrowing, false otherwise
    **/

    function isReserveBorrowingEnabled(address _reserve) external view returns (bool) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.borrowingEnabled;
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns true if the reserve is enabled as collateral
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return true if the reserve is enabled as collateral, false otherwise
    **/

    function isReserveUsageAsCollateralEnabled(address _reserve) external view returns (bool) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.usageAsCollateralEnabled;
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns true if the stable rate is enabled on reserve
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return true if the stable rate is enabled on reserve, false otherwise
    **/
    function getReserveIsStableBorrowRateEnabled(address _reserve) external view returns (bool) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.isStableBorrowRateEnabled;
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns true if the reserve is active
    * @param _reserve the reserve address
    * @return true if the reserve is active, false otherwise
    **/
    function getReserveIsActive(address _reserve) external view returns (bool) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.isActive;
    }

    /**
    * @notice returns if a reserve is freezed
    * @param _reserve the reserve for which the information is needed
    * @return true if the reserve is freezed, false otherwise
    **/

    function getReserveIsFreezed(address _reserve) external view returns (bool) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        return reserve.isFreezed;
    }

    /**
    * @notice returns the timestamp of the last action on the reserve
    * @param _reserve the reserve for which the information is needed
    * @return the last updated timestamp of the reserve
    **/

    function getReserveLastUpdate(address _reserve) external view returns (uint40 timestamp) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        timestamp = reserve.lastUpdateTimestamp;
    }

    /**
    * @dev returns the utilization rate U of a specific reserve
    * @param _reserve the reserve for which the information is needed
    * @return the utilization rate in ray
    **/

    function getReserveUtilizationRate(address _reserve) public view returns (uint256) {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];

        uint256 totalBorrows = reserve.getTotalBorrows();

        if (totalBorrows == 0) {
            return 0;
        }

        uint256 availableLiquidity = getReserveAvailableLiquidity(_reserve);

        return totalBorrows.rayDiv(availableLiquidity.add(totalBorrows));
    }

    /**
    * @return the array of reserves configured on the core
    **/
    function getReserves() external view returns (address[] memory) {
        return reservesList;
    }

    /**
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve for which the information is needed
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the information is needed
    * @return true if the user has chosen to use the reserve as collateral, false otherwise
    **/
    function isUserUseReserveAsCollateralEnabled(address _reserve, address _user)
        external
        view
        returns (bool)
    {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
        return user.useAsCollateral;
    }

    /**
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve for which the information is needed
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the information is needed
    * @return the origination fee for the user
    **/
    function getUserOriginationFee(address _reserve, address _user)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
        return user.originationFee;
    }

    /**
    * @dev users with no loans in progress have NONE as borrow rate mode
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve for which the information is needed
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the information is needed
    * @return the borrow rate mode for the user,
    **/

    function getUserCurrentBorrowRateMode(address _reserve, address _user)
        public
        view
        returns (CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode)
    {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];

        if (user.principalBorrowBalance == 0) {
            return CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.NONE;
        }

        return
            user.stableBorrowRate > 0
            ? CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE
            : CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE;
    }

    /**
    * @dev gets the current borrow rate of the user
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve for which the information is needed
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the information is needed
    * @return the borrow rate for the user,
    **/
    function getUserCurrentBorrowRate(address _reserve, address _user)
        internal
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode rateMode = getUserCurrentBorrowRateMode(_reserve, _user);

        if (rateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.NONE) {
            return 0;
        }

        return
            rateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE
            ? usersReserveData[_user][_reserve].stableBorrowRate
            : reserves[_reserve].currentVariableBorrowRate;
    }

    /**
    * @dev the stable rate returned is 0 if the user is borrowing at variable or not borrowing at all
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve for which the information is needed
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the information is needed
    * @return the user stable rate
    **/
    function getUserCurrentStableBorrowRate(address _reserve, address _user)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
        return user.stableBorrowRate;
    }

    /**
    * @dev calculates and returns the borrow balances of the user
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user
    * @return the principal borrow balance, the compounded balance and the balance increase since the last borrow/repay/swap/rebalance
    **/

    function getUserBorrowBalances(address _reserve, address _user)
        public
        view
        returns (uint256, uint256, uint256)
    {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
        if (user.principalBorrowBalance == 0) {
            return (0, 0, 0);
        }

        uint256 principal = user.principalBorrowBalance;
        uint256 compoundedBalance = CoreLibrary.getCompoundedBorrowBalance(
            user,
            reserves[_reserve]
        );
        return (principal, compoundedBalance, compoundedBalance.sub(principal));
    }

    /**
    * @dev the variable borrow index of the user is 0 if the user is not borrowing or borrowing at stable
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve for which the information is needed
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the information is needed
    * @return the variable borrow index for the user
    **/

    function getUserVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex(address _reserve, address _user)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256)
    {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
        return user.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex;
    }

    /**
    * @dev the variable borrow index of the user is 0 if the user is not borrowing or borrowing at stable
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve for which the information is needed
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the information is needed
    * @return the variable borrow index for the user
    **/

    function getUserLastUpdate(address _reserve, address _user)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256 timestamp)
    {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
        timestamp = user.lastUpdateTimestamp;
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the lending pool core configuration
    **/
    function refreshConfiguration() external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        refreshConfigInternal();
    }

    /**
    * @dev initializes a reserve
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _aTokenAddress the address of the overlying aToken contract
    * @param _decimals the decimals of the reserve currency
    * @param _interestRateStrategyAddress the address of the interest rate strategy contract
    **/
    function initReserve(
        address _reserve,
        address _aTokenAddress,
        uint256 _decimals,
        address _interestRateStrategyAddress
    ) external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        reserves[_reserve].init(_aTokenAddress, _decimals, _interestRateStrategyAddress);
        addReserveToListInternal(_reserve);

    }



    /**
    * @dev removes the last added reserve in the reservesList array
    * @param _reserveToRemove the address of the reserve
    **/
    function removeLastAddedReserve(address _reserveToRemove)
     external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {

        address lastReserve = reservesList[reservesList.length-1];

        require(lastReserve == _reserveToRemove, "Reserve being removed is different than the reserve requested");

        //as we can't check if totalLiquidity is 0 (since the reserve added might not be an ERC20) we at least check that there is nothing borrowed
        require(getReserveTotalBorrows(lastReserve) == 0, "Cannot remove a reserve with liquidity deposited");

        reserves[lastReserve].isActive = false;
        reserves[lastReserve].aTokenAddress = address(0);
        reserves[lastReserve].decimals = 0;
        reserves[lastReserve].lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex = 0;
        reserves[lastReserve].lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex = 0;
        reserves[lastReserve].borrowingEnabled = false;
        reserves[lastReserve].usageAsCollateralEnabled = false;
        reserves[lastReserve].baseLTVasCollateral = 0;
        reserves[lastReserve].liquidationThreshold = 0;
        reserves[lastReserve].liquidationBonus = 0;
        reserves[lastReserve].interestRateStrategyAddress = address(0);

        reservesList.pop();
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the address of the interest rate strategy contract
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _rateStrategyAddress the address of the interest rate strategy contract
    **/

    function setReserveInterestRateStrategyAddress(address _reserve, address _rateStrategyAddress)
        external
        onlyLendingPoolConfigurator
    {
        reserves[_reserve].interestRateStrategyAddress = _rateStrategyAddress;
    }

    /**
    * @dev enables borrowing on a reserve. Also sets the stable rate borrowing
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _stableBorrowRateEnabled true if the stable rate needs to be enabled, false otherwise
    **/

    function enableBorrowingOnReserve(address _reserve, bool _stableBorrowRateEnabled)
        external
        onlyLendingPoolConfigurator
    {
        reserves[_reserve].enableBorrowing(_stableBorrowRateEnabled);
    }

    /**
    * @dev disables borrowing on a reserve
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/

    function disableBorrowingOnReserve(address _reserve) external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        reserves[_reserve].disableBorrowing();
    }

    /**
    * @dev enables a reserve to be used as collateral
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    function enableReserveAsCollateral(
        address _reserve,
        uint256 _baseLTVasCollateral,
        uint256 _liquidationThreshold,
        uint256 _liquidationBonus
    ) external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        reserves[_reserve].enableAsCollateral(
            _baseLTVasCollateral,
            _liquidationThreshold,
            _liquidationBonus
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev disables a reserve to be used as collateral
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    function disableReserveAsCollateral(address _reserve) external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        reserves[_reserve].disableAsCollateral();
    }

    /**
    * @dev enable the stable borrow rate mode on a reserve
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    function enableReserveStableBorrowRate(address _reserve) external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        reserve.isStableBorrowRateEnabled = true;
    }

    /**
    * @dev disable the stable borrow rate mode on a reserve
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    function disableReserveStableBorrowRate(address _reserve) external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        reserve.isStableBorrowRateEnabled = false;
    }

    /**
    * @dev activates a reserve
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    function activateReserve(address _reserve) external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];

        require(
            reserve.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex > 0 &&
                reserve.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex > 0,
            "Reserve has not been initialized yet"
        );
        reserve.isActive = true;
    }

    /**
    * @dev deactivates a reserve
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    function deactivateReserve(address _reserve) external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        reserve.isActive = false;
    }

    /**
    * @notice allows the configurator to freeze the reserve.
    * A freezed reserve does not allow any action apart from repay, redeem, liquidationCall, rebalance.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    function freezeReserve(address _reserve) external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        reserve.isFreezed = true;
    }

    /**
    * @notice allows the configurator to unfreeze the reserve. A unfreezed reserve allows any action to be executed.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    function unfreezeReserve(address _reserve) external onlyLendingPoolConfigurator {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        reserve.isFreezed = false;
    }

    /**
    * @notice allows the configurator to update the loan to value of a reserve
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _ltv the new loan to value
    **/
    function setReserveBaseLTVasCollateral(address _reserve, uint256 _ltv)
        external
        onlyLendingPoolConfigurator
    {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        reserve.baseLTVasCollateral = _ltv;
    }

    /**
    * @notice allows the configurator to update the liquidation threshold of a reserve
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _threshold the new liquidation threshold
    **/
    function setReserveLiquidationThreshold(address _reserve, uint256 _threshold)
        external
        onlyLendingPoolConfigurator
    {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        reserve.liquidationThreshold = _threshold;
    }

    /**
    * @notice allows the configurator to update the liquidation bonus of a reserve
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _bonus the new liquidation bonus
    **/
    function setReserveLiquidationBonus(address _reserve, uint256 _bonus)
        external
        onlyLendingPoolConfigurator
    {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        reserve.liquidationBonus = _bonus;
    }

    /**
    * @notice allows the configurator to update the reserve decimals
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _decimals the decimals of the reserve
    **/
    function setReserveDecimals(address _reserve, uint256 _decimals)
        external
        onlyLendingPoolConfigurator
    {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        reserve.decimals = _decimals;
    }

    /**
    * @notice internal functions
    **/

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of a reserve as a consequence of a borrow action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user is borrowing
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _principalBorrowBalance the previous borrow balance of the borrower before the action
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest of the user on the previous borrowed amount
    * @param _amountBorrowed the new amount borrowed
    * @param _rateMode the borrow rate mode (stable, variable)
    **/

    function updateReserveStateOnBorrowInternal(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _principalBorrowBalance,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease,
        uint256 _amountBorrowed,
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode _rateMode
    ) internal {
        reserves[_reserve].updateCumulativeIndexes();

        //increasing reserve total borrows to account for the new borrow balance of the user
        //NOTE: Depending on the previous borrow mode, the borrows might need to be switched from variable to stable or vice versa

        updateReserveTotalBorrowsByRateModeInternal(
            _reserve,
            _user,
            _principalBorrowBalance,
            _balanceIncrease,
            _amountBorrowed,
            _rateMode
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of a user as a consequence of a borrow action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user is borrowing
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _amountBorrowed the amount borrowed
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest of the user on the previous borrowed amount
    * @param _rateMode the borrow rate mode (stable, variable)
    * @return the final borrow rate for the user. Emitted by the borrow() event
    **/

    function updateUserStateOnBorrowInternal(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _amountBorrowed,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease,
        uint256 _fee,
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode _rateMode
    ) internal {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];

        if (_rateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE) {
            //stable
            //reset the user variable index, and update the stable rate
            user.stableBorrowRate = reserve.currentStableBorrowRate;
            user.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex = 0;
        } else if (_rateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE) {
            //variable
            //reset the user stable rate, and store the new borrow index
            user.stableBorrowRate = 0;
            user.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex = reserve.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex;
        } else {
            revert("Invalid borrow rate mode");
        }
        //increase the principal borrows and the origination fee
        user.principalBorrowBalance = user.principalBorrowBalance.add(_amountBorrowed).add(
            _balanceIncrease
        );
        user.originationFee = user.originationFee.add(_fee);

        //solium-disable-next-line
        user.lastUpdateTimestamp = uint40(block.timestamp);

    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the reserve as a consequence of a repay action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user is repaying
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _paybackAmountMinusFees the amount being paid back minus fees
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    **/

    function updateReserveStateOnRepayInternal(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _paybackAmountMinusFees,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease
    ) internal {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_reserve][_user];

        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode borrowRateMode = getUserCurrentBorrowRateMode(_reserve, _user);

        //update the indexes
        reserves[_reserve].updateCumulativeIndexes();

        //compound the cumulated interest to the borrow balance and then subtracting the payback amount
        if (borrowRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE) {
            reserve.increaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
                _balanceIncrease,
                user.stableBorrowRate
            );
            reserve.decreaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
                _paybackAmountMinusFees,
                user.stableBorrowRate
            );
        } else {
            reserve.increaseTotalBorrowsVariable(_balanceIncrease);
            reserve.decreaseTotalBorrowsVariable(_paybackAmountMinusFees);
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the user as a consequence of a repay action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user is repaying
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _paybackAmountMinusFees the amount being paid back minus fees
    * @param _originationFeeRepaid the fee on the amount that is being repaid
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    * @param _repaidWholeLoan true if the user is repaying the whole loan
    **/
    function updateUserStateOnRepayInternal(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _paybackAmountMinusFees,
        uint256 _originationFeeRepaid,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease,
        bool _repaidWholeLoan
    ) internal {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];

        //update the user principal borrow balance, adding the cumulated interest and then subtracting the payback amount
        user.principalBorrowBalance = user.principalBorrowBalance.add(_balanceIncrease).sub(
            _paybackAmountMinusFees
        );
        user.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex = reserve.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex;

        //if the balance decrease is equal to the previous principal (user is repaying the whole loan)
        //and the rate mode is stable, we reset the interest rate mode of the user
        if (_repaidWholeLoan) {
            user.stableBorrowRate = 0;
            user.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex = 0;
        }
        user.originationFee = user.originationFee.sub(_originationFeeRepaid);

        //solium-disable-next-line
        user.lastUpdateTimestamp = uint40(block.timestamp);

    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the user as a consequence of a swap rate action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user is performing the rate swap
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _principalBorrowBalance the the principal amount borrowed by the user
    * @param _compoundedBorrowBalance the principal amount plus the accrued interest
    * @param _currentRateMode the rate mode at which the user borrowed
    **/
    function updateReserveStateOnSwapRateInternal(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _principalBorrowBalance,
        uint256 _compoundedBorrowBalance,
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode _currentRateMode
    ) internal {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];

        //compounding reserve indexes
        reserve.updateCumulativeIndexes();

        if (_currentRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE) {
            uint256 userCurrentStableRate = user.stableBorrowRate;

            //swap to variable
            reserve.decreaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
                _principalBorrowBalance,
                userCurrentStableRate
            ); //decreasing stable from old principal balance
            reserve.increaseTotalBorrowsVariable(_compoundedBorrowBalance); //increase variable borrows
        } else if (_currentRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE) {
            //swap to stable
            uint256 currentStableRate = reserve.currentStableBorrowRate;
            reserve.decreaseTotalBorrowsVariable(_principalBorrowBalance);
            reserve.increaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
                _compoundedBorrowBalance,
                currentStableRate
            );

        } else {
            revert("Invalid rate mode received");
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the user as a consequence of a swap rate action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user is performing the swap
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    * @param _currentRateMode the current rate mode of the user
    **/

    function updateUserStateOnSwapRateInternal(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease,
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode _currentRateMode
    ) internal returns (CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode) {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];

        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode newMode = CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.NONE;

        if (_currentRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE) {
            //switch to stable
            newMode = CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE;
            user.stableBorrowRate = reserve.currentStableBorrowRate;
            user.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex = 0;
        } else if (_currentRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE) {
            newMode = CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE;
            user.stableBorrowRate = 0;
            user.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex = reserve.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex;
        } else {
            revert("Invalid interest rate mode received");
        }
        //compounding cumulated interest
        user.principalBorrowBalance = user.principalBorrowBalance.add(_balanceIncrease);
        //solium-disable-next-line
        user.lastUpdateTimestamp = uint40(block.timestamp);

        return newMode;
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the principal reserve as a consequence of a liquidation action.
    * @param _principalReserve the address of the principal reserve that is being repaid
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _amountToLiquidate the amount being repaid by the liquidator
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    **/

    function updatePrincipalReserveStateOnLiquidationInternal(
        address _principalReserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _amountToLiquidate,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease
    ) internal {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_principalReserve];
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_principalReserve];

        //update principal reserve data
        reserve.updateCumulativeIndexes();

        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode borrowRateMode = getUserCurrentBorrowRateMode(
            _principalReserve,
            _user
        );

        if (borrowRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE) {
            //increase the total borrows by the compounded interest
            reserve.increaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
                _balanceIncrease,
                user.stableBorrowRate
            );

            //decrease by the actual amount to liquidate
            reserve.decreaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
                _amountToLiquidate,
                user.stableBorrowRate
            );

        } else {
            //increase the total borrows by the compounded interest
            reserve.increaseTotalBorrowsVariable(_balanceIncrease);

            //decrease by the actual amount to liquidate
            reserve.decreaseTotalBorrowsVariable(_amountToLiquidate);
        }

    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the collateral reserve as a consequence of a liquidation action.
    * @param _collateralReserve the address of the collateral reserve that is being liquidated
    **/
    function updateCollateralReserveStateOnLiquidationInternal(
        address _collateralReserve
    ) internal {
        //update collateral reserve
        reserves[_collateralReserve].updateCumulativeIndexes();

    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the user being liquidated as a consequence of a liquidation action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the principal reserve that is being repaid
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _amountToLiquidate the amount being repaid by the liquidator
    * @param _feeLiquidated the amount of origination fee being liquidated
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    **/
    function updateUserStateOnLiquidationInternal(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _amountToLiquidate,
        uint256 _feeLiquidated,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease
    ) internal {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        //first increase by the compounded interest, then decrease by the liquidated amount
        user.principalBorrowBalance = user.principalBorrowBalance.add(_balanceIncrease).sub(
            _amountToLiquidate
        );

        if (
            getUserCurrentBorrowRateMode(_reserve, _user) == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE
        ) {
            user.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex = reserve.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex;
        }

        if(_feeLiquidated > 0){
            user.originationFee = user.originationFee.sub(_feeLiquidated);
        }

        //solium-disable-next-line
        user.lastUpdateTimestamp = uint40(block.timestamp);
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the reserve as a consequence of a stable rate rebalance
    * @param _reserve the address of the principal reserve where the user borrowed
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    **/

    function updateReserveStateOnRebalanceInternal(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease
    ) internal {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];

        reserve.updateCumulativeIndexes();

        reserve.increaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
            _balanceIncrease,
            user.stableBorrowRate
        );

    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the user as a consequence of a stable rate rebalance
    * @param _reserve the address of the principal reserve where the user borrowed
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    **/

    function updateUserStateOnRebalanceInternal(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease
    ) internal {
        CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];

        user.principalBorrowBalance = user.principalBorrowBalance.add(_balanceIncrease);
        user.stableBorrowRate = reserve.currentStableBorrowRate;

        //solium-disable-next-line
        user.lastUpdateTimestamp = uint40(block.timestamp);
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the state of the user as a consequence of a stable rate rebalance
    * @param _reserve the address of the principal reserve where the user borrowed
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _balanceIncrease the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    * @param _amountBorrowed the accrued interest on the borrowed amount
    **/
    function updateReserveTotalBorrowsByRateModeInternal(
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _principalBalance,
        uint256 _balanceIncrease,
        uint256 _amountBorrowed,
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode _newBorrowRateMode
    ) internal {
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode previousRateMode = getUserCurrentBorrowRateMode(
            _reserve,
            _user
        );
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];

        if (previousRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE) {
            CoreLibrary.UserReserveData storage user = usersReserveData[_user][_reserve];
            reserve.decreaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
                _principalBalance,
                user.stableBorrowRate
            );
        } else if (previousRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE) {
            reserve.decreaseTotalBorrowsVariable(_principalBalance);
        }

        uint256 newPrincipalAmount = _principalBalance.add(_balanceIncrease).add(_amountBorrowed);
        if (_newBorrowRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE) {
            reserve.increaseTotalBorrowsStableAndUpdateAverageRate(
                newPrincipalAmount,
                reserve.currentStableBorrowRate
            );
        } else if (_newBorrowRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE) {
            reserve.increaseTotalBorrowsVariable(newPrincipalAmount);
        } else {
            revert("Invalid new borrow rate mode");
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev Updates the reserve current stable borrow rate Rf, the current variable borrow rate Rv and the current liquidity rate Rl.
    * Also updates the lastUpdateTimestamp value. Please refer to the whitepaper for further information.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve to be updated
    * @param _liquidityAdded the amount of liquidity added to the protocol (deposit or repay) in the previous action
    * @param _liquidityTaken the amount of liquidity taken from the protocol (redeem or borrow)
    **/

    function updateReserveInterestRatesAndTimestampInternal(
        address _reserve,
        uint256 _liquidityAdded,
        uint256 _liquidityTaken
    ) internal {
        CoreLibrary.ReserveData storage reserve = reserves[_reserve];
        (uint256 newLiquidityRate, uint256 newStableRate, uint256 newVariableRate) = IReserveInterestRateStrategy(
            reserve
                .interestRateStrategyAddress
        )
            .calculateInterestRates(
            _reserve,
            getReserveAvailableLiquidity(_reserve).add(_liquidityAdded).sub(_liquidityTaken),
            reserve.totalBorrowsStable,
            reserve.totalBorrowsVariable,
            reserve.currentAverageStableBorrowRate
        );

        reserve.currentLiquidityRate = newLiquidityRate;
        reserve.currentStableBorrowRate = newStableRate;
        reserve.currentVariableBorrowRate = newVariableRate;

        //solium-disable-next-line
        reserve.lastUpdateTimestamp = uint40(block.timestamp);

        emit ReserveUpdated(
            _reserve,
            newLiquidityRate,
            newStableRate,
            newVariableRate,
            reserve.lastLiquidityCumulativeIndex,
            reserve.lastVariableBorrowCumulativeIndex
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev transfers to the protocol fees of a flashloan to the fees collection address
    * @param _token the address of the token being transferred
    * @param _amount the amount being transferred
    **/

    function transferFlashLoanProtocolFeeInternal(address _token, uint256 _amount) internal {
        address payable receiver = address(uint160(addressesProvider.getTokenDistributor()));

        if (_token != EthAddressLib.ethAddress()) {
            ERC20(_token).safeTransfer(receiver, _amount);
        } else {
            receiver.transfer(_amount);
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev updates the internal configuration of the core
    **/
    function refreshConfigInternal() internal {
        lendingPoolAddress = addressesProvider.getLendingPool();
    }

    /**
    * @dev adds a reserve to the array of the reserves address
    **/
    function addReserveToListInternal(address _reserve) internal {
        bool reserveAlreadyAdded = false;
        for (uint256 i = 0; i < reservesList.length; i++)
            if (reservesList[i] == _reserve) {
                reserveAlreadyAdded = true;
            }
        if (!reserveAlreadyAdded) reservesList.push(_reserve);
    }

}

/**
* @title LendingPool contract
* @notice Implements the actions of the LendingPool, and exposes accessory methods to fetch the users and reserve data
* @author Aave
 **/

contract LendingPool is ReentrancyGuard, VersionedInitializable {
    using SafeMath for uint256;
    using WadRayMath for uint256;
    using Address for address;

    LendingPoolAddressesProvider public addressesProvider;
    LendingPoolCore public core;
    LendingPoolDataProvider public dataProvider;
    LendingPoolParametersProvider public parametersProvider;
    IFeeProvider feeProvider;

    /**
    * @dev emitted on deposit
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user
    * @param _amount the amount to be deposited
    * @param _referral the referral number of the action
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event Deposit(
        address indexed _reserve,
        address indexed _user,
        uint256 _amount,
        uint16 indexed _referral,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted during a redeem action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user
    * @param _amount the amount to be deposited
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event RedeemUnderlying(
        address indexed _reserve,
        address indexed _user,
        uint256 _amount,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted on borrow
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user
    * @param _amount the amount to be deposited
    * @param _borrowRateMode the rate mode, can be either 1-stable or 2-variable
    * @param _borrowRate the rate at which the user has borrowed
    * @param _originationFee the origination fee to be paid by the user
    * @param _borrowBalanceIncrease the balance increase since the last borrow, 0 if it's the first time borrowing
    * @param _referral the referral number of the action
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event Borrow(
        address indexed _reserve,
        address indexed _user,
        uint256 _amount,
        uint256 _borrowRateMode,
        uint256 _borrowRate,
        uint256 _originationFee,
        uint256 _borrowBalanceIncrease,
        uint16 indexed _referral,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted on repay
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the repay has been executed
    * @param _repayer the address of the user that has performed the repay action
    * @param _amountMinusFees the amount repaid minus fees
    * @param _fees the fees repaid
    * @param _borrowBalanceIncrease the balance increase since the last action
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event Repay(
        address indexed _reserve,
        address indexed _user,
        address indexed _repayer,
        uint256 _amountMinusFees,
        uint256 _fees,
        uint256 _borrowBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted when a user performs a rate swap
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user executing the swap
    * @param _newRateMode the new interest rate mode
    * @param _newRate the new borrow rate
    * @param _borrowBalanceIncrease the balance increase since the last action
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event Swap(
        address indexed _reserve,
        address indexed _user,
        uint256 _newRateMode,
        uint256 _newRate,
        uint256 _borrowBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted when a user enables a reserve as collateral
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user
    **/
    event ReserveUsedAsCollateralEnabled(address indexed _reserve, address indexed _user);

    /**
    * @dev emitted when a user disables a reserve as collateral
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user
    **/
    event ReserveUsedAsCollateralDisabled(address indexed _reserve, address indexed _user);

    /**
    * @dev emitted when the stable rate of a user gets rebalanced
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user for which the rebalance has been executed
    * @param _newStableRate the new stable borrow rate after the rebalance
    * @param _borrowBalanceIncrease the balance increase since the last action
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event RebalanceStableBorrowRate(
        address indexed _reserve,
        address indexed _user,
        uint256 _newStableRate,
        uint256 _borrowBalanceIncrease,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted when a flashloan is executed
    * @param _target the address of the flashLoanReceiver
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _amount the amount requested
    * @param _totalFee the total fee on the amount
    * @param _protocolFee the part of the fee for the protocol
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event FlashLoan(
        address indexed _target,
        address indexed _reserve,
        uint256 _amount,
        uint256 _totalFee,
        uint256 _protocolFee,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    /**
    * @dev these events are not emitted directly by the LendingPool
    * but they are declared here as the LendingPoolLiquidationManager
    * is executed using a delegateCall().
    * This allows to have the events in the generated ABI for LendingPool.
    **/

    /**
    * @dev emitted when a borrow fee is liquidated
    * @param _collateral the address of the collateral being liquidated
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user being liquidated
    * @param _feeLiquidated the total fee liquidated
    * @param _liquidatedCollateralForFee the amount of collateral received by the protocol in exchange for the fee
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event OriginationFeeLiquidated(
        address indexed _collateral,
        address indexed _reserve,
        address indexed _user,
        uint256 _feeLiquidated,
        uint256 _liquidatedCollateralForFee,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted when a borrower is liquidated
    * @param _collateral the address of the collateral being liquidated
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user being liquidated
    * @param _purchaseAmount the total amount liquidated
    * @param _liquidatedCollateralAmount the amount of collateral being liquidated
    * @param _accruedBorrowInterest the amount of interest accrued by the borrower since the last action
    * @param _liquidator the address of the liquidator
    * @param _receiveAToken true if the liquidator wants to receive aTokens, false otherwise
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event LiquidationCall(
        address indexed _collateral,
        address indexed _reserve,
        address indexed _user,
        uint256 _purchaseAmount,
        uint256 _liquidatedCollateralAmount,
        uint256 _accruedBorrowInterest,
        address _liquidator,
        bool _receiveAToken,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    /**
    * @dev functions affected by this modifier can only be invoked by the
    * aToken.sol contract
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    modifier onlyOverlyingAToken(address _reserve) {
        require(
            msg.sender == core.getReserveATokenAddress(_reserve),
            "The caller of this function can only be the aToken contract of this reserve"
        );
        _;
    }

    /**
    * @dev functions affected by this modifier can only be invoked if the reserve is active
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    modifier onlyActiveReserve(address _reserve) {
        requireReserveActiveInternal(_reserve);
        _;
    }

    /**
    * @dev functions affected by this modifier can only be invoked if the reserve is not freezed.
    * A freezed reserve only allows redeems, repays, rebalances and liquidations.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    **/
    modifier onlyUnfreezedReserve(address _reserve) {
        requireReserveNotFreezedInternal(_reserve);
        _;
    }

    /**
    * @dev functions affected by this modifier can only be invoked if the provided _amount input parameter
    * is not zero.
    * @param _amount the amount provided
    **/
    modifier onlyAmountGreaterThanZero(uint256 _amount) {
        requireAmountGreaterThanZeroInternal(_amount);
        _;
    }

    uint256 public constant UINT_MAX_VALUE = uint256(-1);

    uint256 public constant LENDINGPOOL_REVISION = 0x2;

    function getRevision() internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return LENDINGPOOL_REVISION;
    }

    /**
    * @dev this function is invoked by the proxy contract when the LendingPool contract is added to the
    * AddressesProvider.
    * @param _addressesProvider the address of the LendingPoolAddressesProvider registry
    **/
    function initialize(LendingPoolAddressesProvider _addressesProvider) public initializer {
        addressesProvider = _addressesProvider;
        core = LendingPoolCore(addressesProvider.getLendingPoolCore());
        dataProvider = LendingPoolDataProvider(addressesProvider.getLendingPoolDataProvider());
        parametersProvider = LendingPoolParametersProvider(
            addressesProvider.getLendingPoolParametersProvider()
        );
        feeProvider = IFeeProvider(addressesProvider.getFeeProvider());
    }

    /**
    * @dev deposits The underlying asset into the reserve. A corresponding amount of the overlying asset (aTokens)
    * is minted.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _amount the amount to be deposited
    * @param _referralCode integrators are assigned a referral code and can potentially receive rewards.
    **/
    function deposit(address _reserve, uint256 _amount, uint16 _referralCode)
        external
        payable
        nonReentrant
        onlyActiveReserve(_reserve)
        onlyUnfreezedReserve(_reserve)
        onlyAmountGreaterThanZero(_amount)
    {
        AToken aToken = AToken(core.getReserveATokenAddress(_reserve));

        bool isFirstDeposit = aToken.balanceOf(msg.sender) == 0;

        core.updateStateOnDeposit(_reserve, msg.sender, _amount, isFirstDeposit);

        //minting AToken to user 1:1 with the specific exchange rate
        aToken.mintOnDeposit(msg.sender, _amount);

        //transfer to the core contract
        core.transferToReserve.value(msg.value)(_reserve, msg.sender, _amount);

        //solium-disable-next-line
        emit Deposit(_reserve, msg.sender, _amount, _referralCode, block.timestamp);

    }

    /**
    * @dev Redeems the underlying amount of assets requested by _user.
    * This function is executed by the overlying aToken contract in response to a redeem action.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user performing the action
    * @param _amount the underlying amount to be redeemed
    **/
    function redeemUnderlying(
        address _reserve,
        address payable _user,
        uint256 _amount,
        uint256 _aTokenBalanceAfterRedeem
    )
        external
        nonReentrant
        onlyOverlyingAToken(_reserve)
        onlyActiveReserve(_reserve)
        onlyAmountGreaterThanZero(_amount)
    {
        uint256 currentAvailableLiquidity = core.getReserveAvailableLiquidity(_reserve);
        require(
            currentAvailableLiquidity >= _amount,
            "There is not enough liquidity available to redeem"
        );

        core.updateStateOnRedeem(_reserve, _user, _amount, _aTokenBalanceAfterRedeem == 0);

        core.transferToUser(_reserve, _user, _amount);

        //solium-disable-next-line
        emit RedeemUnderlying(_reserve, _user, _amount, block.timestamp);

    }

    /**
    * @dev data structures for local computations in the borrow() method.
    */

    struct BorrowLocalVars {
        uint256 principalBorrowBalance;
        uint256 currentLtv;
        uint256 currentLiquidationThreshold;
        uint256 borrowFee;
        uint256 requestedBorrowAmountETH;
        uint256 amountOfCollateralNeededETH;
        uint256 userCollateralBalanceETH;
        uint256 userBorrowBalanceETH;
        uint256 userTotalFeesETH;
        uint256 borrowBalanceIncrease;
        uint256 currentReserveStableRate;
        uint256 availableLiquidity;
        uint256 reserveDecimals;
        uint256 finalUserBorrowRate;
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode rateMode;
        bool healthFactorBelowThreshold;
    }

    /**
    * @dev Allows users to borrow a specific amount of the reserve currency, provided that the borrower
    * already deposited enough collateral.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _amount the amount to be borrowed
    * @param _interestRateMode the interest rate mode at which the user wants to borrow. Can be 0 (STABLE) or 1 (VARIABLE)
    **/
    function borrow(
        address _reserve,
        uint256 _amount,
        uint256 _interestRateMode,
        uint16 _referralCode
    )
        external
        nonReentrant
        onlyActiveReserve(_reserve)
        onlyUnfreezedReserve(_reserve)
        onlyAmountGreaterThanZero(_amount)
    {
        // Usage of a memory struct of vars to avoid "Stack too deep" errors due to local variables
        BorrowLocalVars memory vars;

        //check that the reserve is enabled for borrowing
        require(core.isReserveBorrowingEnabled(_reserve), "Reserve is not enabled for borrowing");
        //validate interest rate mode
        require(
            uint256(CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE) == _interestRateMode ||
                uint256(CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE) == _interestRateMode,
            "Invalid interest rate mode selected"
        );

        //cast the rateMode to coreLibrary.interestRateMode
        vars.rateMode = CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode(_interestRateMode);

        //check that the amount is available in the reserve
        vars.availableLiquidity = core.getReserveAvailableLiquidity(_reserve);

        require(
            vars.availableLiquidity >= _amount,
            "There is not enough liquidity available in the reserve"
        );

        (
            ,
            vars.userCollateralBalanceETH,
            vars.userBorrowBalanceETH,
            vars.userTotalFeesETH,
            vars.currentLtv,
            vars.currentLiquidationThreshold,
            ,
            vars.healthFactorBelowThreshold
        ) = dataProvider.calculateUserGlobalData(msg.sender);

        require(vars.userCollateralBalanceETH > 0, "The collateral balance is 0");

        require(
            !vars.healthFactorBelowThreshold,
            "The borrower can already be liquidated so he cannot borrow more"
        );

        //calculating fees
        vars.borrowFee = feeProvider.calculateLoanOriginationFee(msg.sender, _amount);

        require(vars.borrowFee > 0, "The amount to borrow is too small");

        vars.amountOfCollateralNeededETH = dataProvider.calculateCollateralNeededInETH(
            _reserve,
            _amount,
            vars.borrowFee,
            vars.userBorrowBalanceETH,
            vars.userTotalFeesETH,
            vars.currentLtv
        );

        require(
            vars.amountOfCollateralNeededETH <= vars.userCollateralBalanceETH,
            "There is not enough collateral to cover a new borrow"
        );

        /**
        * Following conditions need to be met if the user is borrowing at a stable rate:
        * 1. Reserve must be enabled for stable rate borrowing
        * 2. Users cannot borrow from the reserve if their collateral is (mostly) the same currency
        *    they are borrowing, to prevent abuses.
        * 3. Users will be able to borrow only a relatively small, configurable amount of the total
        *    liquidity
        **/

        if (vars.rateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE) {
            //check if the borrow mode is stable and if stable rate borrowing is enabled on this reserve
            require(
                core.isUserAllowedToBorrowAtStable(_reserve, msg.sender, _amount),
                "User cannot borrow the selected amount with a stable rate"
            );

            //calculate the max available loan size in stable rate mode as a percentage of the
            //available liquidity
            uint256 maxLoanPercent = parametersProvider.getMaxStableRateBorrowSizePercent();
            uint256 maxLoanSizeStable = vars.availableLiquidity.mul(maxLoanPercent).div(100);

            require(
                _amount <= maxLoanSizeStable,
                "User is trying to borrow too much liquidity at a stable rate"
            );
        }

        //all conditions passed - borrow is accepted
        (vars.finalUserBorrowRate, vars.borrowBalanceIncrease) = core.updateStateOnBorrow(
            _reserve,
            msg.sender,
            _amount,
            vars.borrowFee,
            vars.rateMode
        );

        //if we reached this point, we can transfer
        core.transferToUser(_reserve, msg.sender, _amount);

        emit Borrow(
            _reserve,
            msg.sender,
            _amount,
            _interestRateMode,
            vars.finalUserBorrowRate,
            vars.borrowFee,
            vars.borrowBalanceIncrease,
            _referralCode,
            //solium-disable-next-line
            block.timestamp
        );
    }

    /**
    * @notice repays a borrow on the specific reserve, for the specified amount (or for the whole amount, if uint256(-1) is specified).
    * @dev the target user is defined by _onBehalfOf. If there is no repayment on behalf of another account,
    * _onBehalfOf must be equal to msg.sender.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user borrowed
    * @param _amount the amount to repay, or uint256(-1) if the user wants to repay everything
    * @param _onBehalfOf the address for which msg.sender is repaying.
    **/

    struct RepayLocalVars {
        uint256 principalBorrowBalance;
        uint256 compoundedBorrowBalance;
        uint256 borrowBalanceIncrease;
        bool isETH;
        uint256 paybackAmount;
        uint256 paybackAmountMinusFees;
        uint256 currentStableRate;
        uint256 originationFee;
    }

    function repay(address _reserve, uint256 _amount, address payable _onBehalfOf)
        external
        payable
        nonReentrant
        onlyActiveReserve(_reserve)
        onlyAmountGreaterThanZero(_amount)
    {
        // Usage of a memory struct of vars to avoid "Stack too deep" errors due to local variables
        RepayLocalVars memory vars;

        (
            vars.principalBorrowBalance,
            vars.compoundedBorrowBalance,
            vars.borrowBalanceIncrease
        ) = core.getUserBorrowBalances(_reserve, _onBehalfOf);

        vars.originationFee = core.getUserOriginationFee(_reserve, _onBehalfOf);
        vars.isETH = EthAddressLib.ethAddress() == _reserve;

        require(vars.compoundedBorrowBalance > 0, "The user does not have any borrow pending");

        require(
            _amount != UINT_MAX_VALUE || msg.sender == _onBehalfOf,
            "To repay on behalf of an user an explicit amount to repay is needed."
        );

        //default to max amount
        vars.paybackAmount = vars.compoundedBorrowBalance.add(vars.originationFee);

        if (_amount != UINT_MAX_VALUE && _amount < vars.paybackAmount) {
            vars.paybackAmount = _amount;
        }

        require(
            !vars.isETH || msg.value >= vars.paybackAmount,
            "Invalid msg.value sent for the repayment"
        );

        //if the amount is smaller than the origination fee, just transfer the amount to the fee destination address
        if (vars.paybackAmount <= vars.originationFee) {
            core.updateStateOnRepay(
                _reserve,
                _onBehalfOf,
                0,
                vars.paybackAmount,
                vars.borrowBalanceIncrease,
                false
            );

            core.transferToFeeCollectionAddress.value(vars.isETH ? vars.paybackAmount : 0)(
                _reserve,
                _onBehalfOf,
                vars.paybackAmount,
                addressesProvider.getTokenDistributor()
            );

            emit Repay(
                _reserve,
                _onBehalfOf,
                msg.sender,
                0,
                vars.paybackAmount,
                vars.borrowBalanceIncrease,
                //solium-disable-next-line
                block.timestamp
            );
            return;
        }

        vars.paybackAmountMinusFees = vars.paybackAmount.sub(vars.originationFee);

        core.updateStateOnRepay(
            _reserve,
            _onBehalfOf,
            vars.paybackAmountMinusFees,
            vars.originationFee,
            vars.borrowBalanceIncrease,
            vars.compoundedBorrowBalance == vars.paybackAmountMinusFees
        );

        //if the user didn't repay the origination fee, transfer the fee to the fee collection address
        if(vars.originationFee > 0) {
            core.transferToFeeCollectionAddress.value(vars.isETH ? vars.originationFee : 0)(
                _reserve,
                _onBehalfOf,
                vars.originationFee,
                addressesProvider.getTokenDistributor()
            );
        }

        //sending the total msg.value if the transfer is ETH.
        //the transferToReserve() function will take care of sending the
        //excess ETH back to the caller
        core.transferToReserve.value(vars.isETH ? msg.value.sub(vars.originationFee) : 0)(
            _reserve,
            msg.sender,
            vars.paybackAmountMinusFees
        );

        emit Repay(
            _reserve,
            _onBehalfOf,
            msg.sender,
            vars.paybackAmountMinusFees,
            vars.originationFee,
            vars.borrowBalanceIncrease,
            //solium-disable-next-line
            block.timestamp
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev borrowers can user this function to swap between stable and variable borrow rate modes.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve on which the user borrowed
    **/
    function swapBorrowRateMode(address _reserve)
        external
        nonReentrant
        onlyActiveReserve(_reserve)
        onlyUnfreezedReserve(_reserve)
    {
        (uint256 principalBorrowBalance, uint256 compoundedBorrowBalance, uint256 borrowBalanceIncrease) = core
            .getUserBorrowBalances(_reserve, msg.sender);

        require(
            compoundedBorrowBalance > 0,
            "User does not have a borrow in progress on this reserve"
        );

        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode currentRateMode = core.getUserCurrentBorrowRateMode(
            _reserve,
            msg.sender
        );

        if (currentRateMode == CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.VARIABLE) {
            /**
            * user wants to swap to stable, before swapping we need to ensure that
            * 1. stable borrow rate is enabled on the reserve
            * 2. user is not trying to abuse the reserve by depositing
            * more collateral than he is borrowing, artificially lowering
            * the interest rate, borrowing at variable, and switching to stable
            **/
            require(
                core.isUserAllowedToBorrowAtStable(_reserve, msg.sender, compoundedBorrowBalance),
                "User cannot borrow the selected amount at stable"
            );
        }

        (CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode newRateMode, uint256 newBorrowRate) = core
            .updateStateOnSwapRate(
            _reserve,
            msg.sender,
            principalBorrowBalance,
            compoundedBorrowBalance,
            borrowBalanceIncrease,
            currentRateMode
        );

        emit Swap(
            _reserve,
            msg.sender,
            uint256(newRateMode),
            newBorrowRate,
            borrowBalanceIncrease,
            //solium-disable-next-line
            block.timestamp
        );
    }

    /**
    * @dev rebalances the stable interest rate of a user if current liquidity rate > user stable rate.
    * this is regulated by Aave to ensure that the protocol is not abused, and the user is paying a fair
    * rate. Anyone can call this function though.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user to be rebalanced
    **/
    function rebalanceStableBorrowRate(address _reserve, address _user)
        external
        nonReentrant
        onlyActiveReserve(_reserve)
    {
        (, uint256 compoundedBalance, uint256 borrowBalanceIncrease) = core.getUserBorrowBalances(
            _reserve,
            _user
        );

        //step 1: user must be borrowing on _reserve at a stable rate
        require(compoundedBalance > 0, "User does not have any borrow for this reserve");

        require(
            core.getUserCurrentBorrowRateMode(_reserve, _user) ==
                CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode.STABLE,
            "The user borrow is variable and cannot be rebalanced"
        );

        uint256 userCurrentStableRate = core.getUserCurrentStableBorrowRate(_reserve, _user);
        uint256 liquidityRate = core.getReserveCurrentLiquidityRate(_reserve);
        uint256 reserveCurrentStableRate = core.getReserveCurrentStableBorrowRate(_reserve);
        uint256 rebalanceDownRateThreshold = reserveCurrentStableRate.rayMul(
            WadRayMath.ray().add(parametersProvider.getRebalanceDownRateDelta())
        );

        //step 2: we have two possible situations to rebalance:

        //1. user stable borrow rate is below the current liquidity rate. The loan needs to be rebalanced,
        //as this situation can be abused (user putting back the borrowed liquidity in the same reserve to earn on it)
        //2. user stable rate is above the market avg borrow rate of a certain delta, and utilization rate is low.
        //In this case, the user is paying an interest that is too high, and needs to be rescaled down.
        if (
            userCurrentStableRate < liquidityRate ||
            userCurrentStableRate > rebalanceDownRateThreshold
        ) {
            uint256 newStableRate = core.updateStateOnRebalance(
                _reserve,
                _user,
                borrowBalanceIncrease
            );

            emit RebalanceStableBorrowRate(
                _reserve,
                _user,
                newStableRate,
                borrowBalanceIncrease,
                //solium-disable-next-line
                block.timestamp
            );

            return;

        }

        revert("Interest rate rebalance conditions were not met");
    }

    /**
    * @dev allows depositors to enable or disable a specific deposit as collateral.
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _useAsCollateral true if the user wants to user the deposit as collateral, false otherwise.
    **/
    function setUserUseReserveAsCollateral(address _reserve, bool _useAsCollateral)
        external
        nonReentrant
        onlyActiveReserve(_reserve)
        onlyUnfreezedReserve(_reserve)
    {
        uint256 underlyingBalance = core.getUserUnderlyingAssetBalance(_reserve, msg.sender);

        require(underlyingBalance > 0, "User does not have any liquidity deposited");

        require(
            dataProvider.balanceDecreaseAllowed(_reserve, msg.sender, underlyingBalance),
            "User deposit is already being used as collateral"
        );

        core.setUserUseReserveAsCollateral(_reserve, msg.sender, _useAsCollateral);

        if (_useAsCollateral) {
            emit ReserveUsedAsCollateralEnabled(_reserve, msg.sender);
        } else {
            emit ReserveUsedAsCollateralDisabled(_reserve, msg.sender);
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev users can invoke this function to liquidate an undercollateralized position.
    * @param _reserve the address of the collateral to liquidated
    * @param _reserve the address of the principal reserve
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _purchaseAmount the amount of principal that the liquidator wants to repay
    * @param _receiveAToken true if the liquidators wants to receive the aTokens, false if
    * he wants to receive the underlying asset directly
    **/
    function liquidationCall(
        address _collateral,
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _purchaseAmount,
        bool _receiveAToken
    ) external payable nonReentrant onlyActiveReserve(_reserve) onlyActiveReserve(_collateral) {
        address liquidationManager = addressesProvider.getLendingPoolLiquidationManager();

        //solium-disable-next-line
        (bool success, bytes memory result) = liquidationManager.delegatecall(
            abi.encodeWithSignature(
                "liquidationCall(address,address,address,uint256,bool)",
                _collateral,
                _reserve,
                _user,
                _purchaseAmount,
                _receiveAToken
            )
        );
        require(success, "Liquidation call failed");

        (uint256 returnCode, string memory returnMessage) = abi.decode(result, (uint256, string));

        if (returnCode != 0) {
            //error found
            revert(string(abi.encodePacked("Liquidation failed: ", returnMessage)));
        }
    }

    /**
    * @dev allows smartcontracts to access the liquidity of the pool within one transaction,
    * as long as the amount taken plus a fee is returned. NOTE There are security concerns for developers of flashloan receiver contracts
    * that must be kept into consideration. For further details please visit https://developers.aave.com
    * @param _receiver The address of the contract receiving the funds. The receiver should implement the IFlashLoanReceiver interface.
    * @param _reserve the address of the principal reserve
    * @param _amount the amount requested for this flashloan
    **/
    function flashLoan(address _receiver, address _reserve, uint256 _amount, bytes memory _params)
        public
        nonReentrant
        onlyActiveReserve(_reserve)
        onlyAmountGreaterThanZero(_amount)
    {
        //check that the reserve has enough available liquidity
        //we avoid using the getAvailableLiquidity() function in LendingPoolCore to save gas
        uint256 availableLiquidityBefore = _reserve == EthAddressLib.ethAddress()
            ? address(core).balance
            : IERC20(_reserve).balanceOf(address(core));

        require(
            availableLiquidityBefore >= _amount,
            "There is not enough liquidity available to borrow"
        );

        (uint256 totalFeeBips, uint256 protocolFeeBips) = parametersProvider
            .getFlashLoanFeesInBips();
        //calculate amount fee
        uint256 amountFee = _amount.mul(totalFeeBips).div(10000);

        //protocol fee is the part of the amountFee reserved for the protocol - the rest goes to depositors
        uint256 protocolFee = amountFee.mul(protocolFeeBips).div(10000);
        require(
            amountFee > 0 && protocolFee > 0,
            "The requested amount is too small for a flashLoan."
        );

        //get the FlashLoanReceiver instance
        IFlashLoanReceiver receiver = IFlashLoanReceiver(_receiver);

        address payable userPayable = address(uint160(_receiver));

        //transfer funds to the receiver
        core.transferToUser(_reserve, userPayable, _amount);

        //execute action of the receiver
        receiver.executeOperation(_reserve, _amount, amountFee, _params);

        //check that the actual balance of the core contract includes the returned amount
        uint256 availableLiquidityAfter = _reserve == EthAddressLib.ethAddress()
            ? address(core).balance
            : IERC20(_reserve).balanceOf(address(core));

        require(
            availableLiquidityAfter == availableLiquidityBefore.add(amountFee),
            "The actual balance of the protocol is inconsistent"
        );

        core.updateStateOnFlashLoan(
            _reserve,
            availableLiquidityBefore,
            amountFee.sub(protocolFee),
            protocolFee
        );

        //solium-disable-next-line
        emit FlashLoan(_receiver, _reserve, _amount, amountFee, protocolFee, block.timestamp);
    }

    /**
    * @dev accessory functions to fetch data from the core contract
    **/

    function getReserveConfigurationData(address _reserve)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint256 ltv,
            uint256 liquidationThreshold,
            uint256 liquidationBonus,
            address interestRateStrategyAddress,
            bool usageAsCollateralEnabled,
            bool borrowingEnabled,
            bool stableBorrowRateEnabled,
            bool isActive
        )
    {
        return dataProvider.getReserveConfigurationData(_reserve);
    }

    function getReserveData(address _reserve)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint256 totalLiquidity,
            uint256 availableLiquidity,
            uint256 totalBorrowsStable,
            uint256 totalBorrowsVariable,
            uint256 liquidityRate,
            uint256 variableBorrowRate,
            uint256 stableBorrowRate,
            uint256 averageStableBorrowRate,
            uint256 utilizationRate,
            uint256 liquidityIndex,
            uint256 variableBorrowIndex,
            address aTokenAddress,
            uint40 lastUpdateTimestamp
        )
    {
        return dataProvider.getReserveData(_reserve);
    }

    function getUserAccountData(address _user)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint256 totalLiquidityETH,
            uint256 totalCollateralETH,
            uint256 totalBorrowsETH,
            uint256 totalFeesETH,
            uint256 availableBorrowsETH,
            uint256 currentLiquidationThreshold,
            uint256 ltv,
            uint256 healthFactor
        )
    {
        return dataProvider.getUserAccountData(_user);
    }

    function getUserReserveData(address _reserve, address _user)
        external
        view
        returns (
            uint256 currentATokenBalance,
            uint256 currentBorrowBalance,
            uint256 principalBorrowBalance,
            uint256 borrowRateMode,
            uint256 borrowRate,
            uint256 liquidityRate,
            uint256 originationFee,
            uint256 variableBorrowIndex,
            uint256 lastUpdateTimestamp,
            bool usageAsCollateralEnabled
        )
    {
        return dataProvider.getUserReserveData(_reserve, _user);
    }

    function getReserves() external view returns (address[] memory) {
        return core.getReserves();
    }

    /**
    * @dev internal function to save on code size for the onlyActiveReserve modifier
    **/
    function requireReserveActiveInternal(address _reserve) internal view {
        require(core.getReserveIsActive(_reserve), "Action requires an active reserve");
    }

    /**
    * @notice internal function to save on code size for the onlyUnfreezedReserve modifier
    **/
    function requireReserveNotFreezedInternal(address _reserve) internal view {
        require(!core.getReserveIsFreezed(_reserve), "Action requires an unfreezed reserve");
    }

    /**
    * @notice internal function to save on code size for the onlyAmountGreaterThanZero modifier
    **/
    function requireAmountGreaterThanZeroInternal(uint256 _amount) internal pure {
        require(_amount > 0, "Amount must be greater than 0");
    }
}

/**
* @title LendingPoolLiquidationManager contract
* @author Aave
* @notice Implements the liquidation function.
**/
contract LendingPoolLiquidationManager is ReentrancyGuard, VersionedInitializable {
    using SafeMath for uint256;
    using WadRayMath for uint256;
    using Address for address;

    LendingPoolAddressesProvider public addressesProvider;
    LendingPoolCore core;
    LendingPoolDataProvider dataProvider;
    LendingPoolParametersProvider parametersProvider;
    IFeeProvider feeProvider;
    address ethereumAddress;

    uint256 constant LIQUIDATION_CLOSE_FACTOR_PERCENT = 50;

    /**
    * @dev emitted when a borrow fee is liquidated
    * @param _collateral the address of the collateral being liquidated
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user being liquidated
    * @param _feeLiquidated the total fee liquidated
    * @param _liquidatedCollateralForFee the amount of collateral received by the protocol in exchange for the fee
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event OriginationFeeLiquidated(
        address indexed _collateral,
        address indexed _reserve,
        address indexed _user,
        uint256 _feeLiquidated,
        uint256 _liquidatedCollateralForFee,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    /**
    * @dev emitted when a borrower is liquidated
    * @param _collateral the address of the collateral being liquidated
    * @param _reserve the address of the reserve
    * @param _user the address of the user being liquidated
    * @param _purchaseAmount the total amount liquidated
    * @param _liquidatedCollateralAmount the amount of collateral being liquidated
    * @param _accruedBorrowInterest the amount of interest accrued by the borrower since the last action
    * @param _liquidator the address of the liquidator
    * @param _receiveAToken true if the liquidator wants to receive aTokens, false otherwise
    * @param _timestamp the timestamp of the action
    **/
    event LiquidationCall(
        address indexed _collateral,
        address indexed _reserve,
        address indexed _user,
        uint256 _purchaseAmount,
        uint256 _liquidatedCollateralAmount,
        uint256 _accruedBorrowInterest,
        address _liquidator,
        bool _receiveAToken,
        uint256 _timestamp
    );

    enum LiquidationErrors {
        NO_ERROR,
        NO_COLLATERAL_AVAILABLE,
        COLLATERAL_CANNOT_BE_LIQUIDATED,
        CURRRENCY_NOT_BORROWED,
        HEALTH_FACTOR_ABOVE_THRESHOLD,
        NOT_ENOUGH_LIQUIDITY
    }

    struct LiquidationCallLocalVars {
        uint256 userCollateralBalance;
        uint256 userCompoundedBorrowBalance;
        uint256 borrowBalanceIncrease;
        uint256 maxPrincipalAmountToLiquidate;
        uint256 actualAmountToLiquidate;
        uint256 liquidationRatio;
        uint256 collateralPrice;
        uint256 principalCurrencyPrice;
        uint256 maxAmountCollateralToLiquidate;
        uint256 originationFee;
        uint256 feeLiquidated;
        uint256 liquidatedCollateralForFee;
        CoreLibrary.InterestRateMode borrowRateMode;
        uint256 userStableRate;
        bool isCollateralEnabled;
        bool healthFactorBelowThreshold;
    }

    /**
    * @dev as the contract extends the VersionedInitializable contract to match the state
    * of the LendingPool contract, the getRevision() function is needed.
    */
    function getRevision() internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return 0;
    }

    /**
    * @dev users can invoke this function to liquidate an undercollateralized position.
    * @param _reserve the address of the collateral to liquidated
    * @param _reserve the address of the principal reserve
    * @param _user the address of the borrower
    * @param _purchaseAmount the amount of principal that the liquidator wants to repay
    * @param _receiveAToken true if the liquidators wants to receive the aTokens, false if
    * he wants to receive the underlying asset directly
    **/
    function liquidationCall(
        address _collateral,
        address _reserve,
        address _user,
        uint256 _purchaseAmount,
        bool _receiveAToken
    ) external payable returns (uint256, string memory) {
        // Usage of a memory struct of vars to avoid "Stack too deep" errors due to local variables
        LiquidationCallLocalVars memory vars;

        (, , , , , , , vars.healthFactorBelowThreshold) = dataProvider.calculateUserGlobalData(
            _user
        );

        if (!vars.healthFactorBelowThreshold) {
            return (
                uint256(LiquidationErrors.HEALTH_FACTOR_ABOVE_THRESHOLD),
                "Health factor is not below the threshold"
            );
        }

        vars.userCollateralBalance = core.getUserUnderlyingAssetBalance(_collateral, _user);

        //if _user hasn't deposited this specific collateral, nothing can be liquidated
        if (vars.userCollateralBalance == 0) {
            return (
                uint256(LiquidationErrors.NO_COLLATERAL_AVAILABLE),
                "Invalid collateral to liquidate"
            );
        }

        vars.isCollateralEnabled =
            core.isReserveUsageAsCollateralEnabled(_collateral) &&
            core.isUserUseReserveAsCollateralEnabled(_collateral, _user);

        //if _collateral isn't enabled as collateral by _user, it cannot be liquidated
        if (!vars.isCollateralEnabled) {
            return (
                uint256(LiquidationErrors.COLLATERAL_CANNOT_BE_LIQUIDATED),
                "The collateral chosen cannot be liquidated"
            );
        }

        //if the user hasn't borrowed the specific currency defined by _reserve, it cannot be liquidated
        (, vars.userCompoundedBorrowBalance, vars.borrowBalanceIncrease) = core
            .getUserBorrowBalances(_reserve, _user);

        if (vars.userCompoundedBorrowBalance == 0) {
            return (
                uint256(LiquidationErrors.CURRRENCY_NOT_BORROWED),
                "User did not borrow the specified currency"
            );
        }

        //all clear - calculate the max principal amount that can be liquidated
        vars.maxPrincipalAmountToLiquidate = vars
            .userCompoundedBorrowBalance
            .mul(LIQUIDATION_CLOSE_FACTOR_PERCENT)
            .div(100);

        vars.actualAmountToLiquidate = _purchaseAmount > vars.maxPrincipalAmountToLiquidate
            ? vars.maxPrincipalAmountToLiquidate
            : _purchaseAmount;

        (uint256 maxCollateralToLiquidate, uint256 principalAmountNeeded) = calculateAvailableCollateralToLiquidate(
            _collateral,
            _reserve,
            vars.actualAmountToLiquidate,
            vars.userCollateralBalance
        );

        vars.originationFee = core.getUserOriginationFee(_reserve, _user);

        //if there is a fee to liquidate, calculate the maximum amount of fee that can be liquidated
        if (vars.originationFee > 0) {
            (
                vars.liquidatedCollateralForFee,
                vars.feeLiquidated
            ) = calculateAvailableCollateralToLiquidate(
                _collateral,
                _reserve,
                vars.originationFee,
                vars.userCollateralBalance.sub(maxCollateralToLiquidate)
            );
        }

        //if principalAmountNeeded < vars.ActualAmountToLiquidate, there isn't enough
        //of _collateral to cover the actual amount that is being liquidated, hence we liquidate
        //a smaller amount

        if (principalAmountNeeded < vars.actualAmountToLiquidate) {
            vars.actualAmountToLiquidate = principalAmountNeeded;
        }

        //if liquidator reclaims the underlying asset, we make sure there is enough available collateral in the reserve
        if (!_receiveAToken) {
            uint256 currentAvailableCollateral = core.getReserveAvailableLiquidity(_collateral);
            if (currentAvailableCollateral < maxCollateralToLiquidate) {
                return (
                    uint256(LiquidationErrors.NOT_ENOUGH_LIQUIDITY),
                    "There isn't enough liquidity available to liquidate"
                );
            }
        }

        core.updateStateOnLiquidation(
            _reserve,
            _collateral,
            _user,
            vars.actualAmountToLiquidate,
            maxCollateralToLiquidate,
            vars.feeLiquidated,
            vars.liquidatedCollateralForFee,
            vars.borrowBalanceIncrease,
            _receiveAToken
        );

        AToken collateralAtoken = AToken(core.getReserveATokenAddress(_collateral));

        //if liquidator reclaims the aToken, he receives the equivalent atoken amount
        if (_receiveAToken) {
            collateralAtoken.transferOnLiquidation(_user, msg.sender, maxCollateralToLiquidate);
        } else {
            //otherwise receives the underlying asset
            //burn the equivalent amount of atoken
            collateralAtoken.burnOnLiquidation(_user, maxCollateralToLiquidate);
            core.transferToUser(_collateral, msg.sender, maxCollateralToLiquidate);
        }

        //transfers the principal currency to the pool
        core.transferToReserve.value(msg.value)(_reserve, msg.sender, vars.actualAmountToLiquidate);

        if (vars.feeLiquidated > 0) {
            //if there is enough collateral to liquidate the fee, first transfer burn an equivalent amount of
            //aTokens of the user
            collateralAtoken.burnOnLiquidation(_user, vars.liquidatedCollateralForFee);

            //then liquidate the fee by transferring it to the fee collection address
            core.liquidateFee(
                _collateral,
                vars.liquidatedCollateralForFee,
                addressesProvider.getTokenDistributor()
            );

            emit OriginationFeeLiquidated(
                _collateral,
                _reserve,
                _user,
                vars.feeLiquidated,
                vars.liquidatedCollateralForFee,
                //solium-disable-next-line
                block.timestamp
            );

        }
        emit LiquidationCall(
            _collateral,
            _reserve,
            _user,
            vars.actualAmountToLiquidate,
            maxCollateralToLiquidate,
            vars.borrowBalanceIncrease,
            msg.sender,
            _receiveAToken,
            //solium-disable-next-line
            block.timestamp
        );

        return (uint256(LiquidationErrors.NO_ERROR), "No errors");
    }

    struct AvailableCollateralToLiquidateLocalVars {
        uint256 userCompoundedBorrowBalance;
        uint256 liquidationBonus;
        uint256 collateralPrice;
        uint256 principalCurrencyPrice;
        uint256 maxAmountCollateralToLiquidate;
    }

    /**
    * @dev calculates how much of a specific collateral can be liquidated, given
    * a certain amount of principal currency. This function needs to be called after
    * all the checks to validate the liquidation have been performed, otherwise it might fail.
    * @param _collateral the collateral to be liquidated
    * @param _principal the principal currency to be liquidated
    * @param _purchaseAmount the amount of principal being liquidated
    * @param _userCollateralBalance the collatera balance for the specific _collateral asset of the user being liquidated
    * @return the maximum amount that is possible to liquidated given all the liquidation constraints (user balance, close factor) and
    * the purchase amount
    **/
    function calculateAvailableCollateralToLiquidate(
        address _collateral,
        address _principal,
        uint256 _purchaseAmount,
        uint256 _userCollateralBalance
    ) internal view returns (uint256 collateralAmount, uint256 principalAmountNeeded) {
        collateralAmount = 0;
        principalAmountNeeded = 0;
        IPriceOracleGetter oracle = IPriceOracleGetter(addressesProvider.getPriceOracle());

        // Usage of a memory struct of vars to avoid "Stack too deep" errors due to local variables
        AvailableCollateralToLiquidateLocalVars memory vars;

        vars.collateralPrice = oracle.getAssetPrice(_collateral);
        vars.principalCurrencyPrice = oracle.getAssetPrice(_principal);
        vars.liquidationBonus = core.getReserveLiquidationBonus(_collateral);

        //this is the maximum possible amount of the selected collateral that can be liquidated, given the
        //max amount of principal currency that is available for liquidation.
        vars.maxAmountCollateralToLiquidate = vars
            .principalCurrencyPrice
            .mul(_purchaseAmount)
            .div(vars.collateralPrice)
            .mul(vars.liquidationBonus)
            .div(100);

        if (vars.maxAmountCollateralToLiquidate > _userCollateralBalance) {
            collateralAmount = _userCollateralBalance;
            principalAmountNeeded = vars
                .collateralPrice
                .mul(collateralAmount)
                .div(vars.principalCurrencyPrice)
                .mul(100)
                .div(vars.liquidationBonus);
        } else {
            collateralAmount = vars.maxAmountCollateralToLiquidate;
            principalAmountNeeded = _purchaseAmount;
        }

        return (collateralAmount, principalAmountNeeded);
    }
}

Contract Security Audit

Contract ABI

[{"inputs":[{"internalType":"contract LendingPoolAddressesProvider","name":"_addressesProvider","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"_underlyingAsset","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint8","name":"_underlyingAssetDecimals","type":"uint8"},{"internalType":"string","name":"_name","type":"string"},{"internalType":"string","name":"_symbol","type":"string"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"constructor"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"owner","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Approval","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"_from","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"_to","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_value","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_fromBalanceIncrease","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_toBalanceIncrease","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_fromIndex","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_toIndex","type":"uint256"}],"name":"BalanceTransfer","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"_from","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_value","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_fromBalanceIncrease","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_fromIndex","type":"uint256"}],"name":"BurnOnLiquidation","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"_from","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"_to","type":"address"}],"name":"InterestRedirectionAllowanceChanged","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"_from","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"_to","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_redirectedBalance","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_fromBalanceIncrease","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_fromIndex","type":"uint256"}],"name":"InterestStreamRedirected","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"_from","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_value","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_fromBalanceIncrease","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_fromIndex","type":"uint256"}],"name":"MintOnDeposit","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"_from","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_value","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_fromBalanceIncrease","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_fromIndex","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Redeem","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"_targetAddress","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_targetBalanceIncrease","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_targetIndex","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_redirectedBalanceAdded","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"_redirectedBalanceRemoved","type":"uint256"}],"name":"RedirectedBalanceUpdated","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"from","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"to","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Transfer","type":"event"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"UINT_MAX_VALUE","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_to","type":"address"}],"name":"allowInterestRedirectionTo","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"owner","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"}],"name":"allowance","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"approve","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"}],"name":"balanceOf","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_account","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"_value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"burnOnLiquidation","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"decimals","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint8","name":"","type":"uint8"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"subtractedValue","type":"uint256"}],"name":"decreaseAllowance","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"}],"name":"getInterestRedirectionAddress","outputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"}],"name":"getRedirectedBalance","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"}],"name":"getUserIndex","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"addedValue","type":"uint256"}],"name":"increaseAllowance","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"_amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"isTransferAllowed","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_account","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"_amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"mintOnDeposit","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"name","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_user","type":"address"}],"name":"principalBalanceOf","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"_amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"redeem","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_to","type":"address"}],"name":"redirectInterestStream","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_from","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"_to","type":"address"}],"name":"redirectInterestStreamOf","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"symbol","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"totalSupply","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"recipient","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transfer","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"sender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"recipient","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"amount","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transferFrom","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"_from","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"_to","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"_value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transferOnLiquidation","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"underlyingAssetAddress","outputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"}]

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Constructor Arguments (ABI-Encoded and is the last bytes of the Contract Creation Code above)

00000000000000000000000024a42fd28c976a61df5d00d0599c34c4f90748c8000000000000000000000000eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000e000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000194161766520496e7465726573742062656172696e67204554480000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000046145544800000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

-----Decoded View---------------
Arg [0] : _addressesProvider (address): 0x24a42fD28C976A61Df5D00D0599C34c4f90748c8
Arg [1] : _underlyingAsset (address): 0xEeeeeEeeeEeEeeEeEeEeeEEEeeeeEeeeeeeeEEeE
Arg [2] : _underlyingAssetDecimals (uint8): 18
Arg [3] : _name (string): Aave Interest bearing ETH
Arg [4] : _symbol (string): aETH

-----Encoded View---------------
9 Constructor Arguments found :
Arg [0] : 00000000000000000000000024a42fd28c976a61df5d00d0599c34c4f90748c8
Arg [1] : 000000000000000000000000eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
Arg [2] : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012
Arg [3] : 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a0
Arg [4] : 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000e0
Arg [5] : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000019
Arg [6] : 4161766520496e7465726573742062656172696e672045544800000000000000
Arg [7] : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004
Arg [8] : 6145544800000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000


Deployed ByteCode Sourcemap

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Swarm Source

bzzr://7029b8e2a8a6dcf81be1753ab59bc1690f3f41e58fae43086d4df87ae569744a

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